QURAN SUMMARY: AN NISA

Surah Nisa Background And Summary of Main Topics.

Surah Nisa Statistics: Total Number of Verses, Revelation Period, Main Characters, Theme And Key Verses.

NAME: النساء, An-Nisa.

Name applied to whole Surah as in it mostly matters are discussed related to family life including marriage and inheritance and Rights of women.

ENGLISH NAME: Women.

CHAPTER NUMBER: 4

SURAH NISA TOTAL VERSES: 176

SURAH NISA TOTAL WORDS: 3,763

TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 1,513

TOTAL LETTERS: 16,332

REVELATION PERIOD:

Medinan, 622 – 627 AD.

MAIN CHARACTERS:

God, Women, Men, Orphans, Inheritor, Children of Israel, Jews, Prophet Muhammad, Believers, Hypocrites, Jesus.

SURAH NISA MAIN TOPICS:

Permission of four marriages, Orphans care, Commandments regarding Inheritance, Immorality Punishment, Lawful Women for Marriage, Mention of Men’s superiority over Women, Intoxication & Prayer, Obey God, Prophet And Your Rulers, Blood Money, Instructions regarding Witnesses, characteristics of Hypocrites, crucifixion of Jesus.

SURAH NISA KEY VERSES:

٣  وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتَامَىٰ فَانْكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا

3  And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice].

١٥  وَاللَّاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِنْكُمْ ۖ فَإِنْ شَهِدُوا فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىٰ يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلًا

15  Those who commit unlawful sexual intercourse of your women – bring against them four [witnesses] from among you. And if they testify, confine the guilty women to houses until death takes them or Allah ordains for them [another] way.

٦٥  فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

65  But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.

٨٢  أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

82  Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction.

١٠٠  وَمَنْ يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً ۚ وَمَنْ يَخْرُجْ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا

100  And whoever emigrates for the cause of Allah will find on the earth many [alternative] locations and abundance. And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and His Messenger and then death overtakes him – his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah. And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

١٢٩  وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِنْ تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا

129  And you will never be able to be equal [in feeling] between wives, even if you should strive [to do so]. So do not incline completely [toward one] and leave another hanging. And if you amend [your affairs] and fear Allah – then indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

١٣٧  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ ازْدَادُوا كُفْرًا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ سَبِيلًا

137  Indeed, those who have believed then disbelieved, then believed, then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief – never will Allah forgive them, nor will He guide them to a way.

SUMMARY OF TOPICS

1-4(Fear Your Lord, Who Created You From One Soul and Created From It its Mate, Take Care of Orphans, Permission Of Four 4 Marriages, Obligation of Dowry: Give the Women [Upon Marriage] Their Bridal Due), 5-10(Take Care Of Foolish’s/Weak-Minded People’s Wealth, Instructions Regarding Property of Orphans) 11-12(Instructions Commandments Regarding Inheritance/Will/Wirasat), 15-16(Lewdness/Immorality Punishment), 19-21(Can Replace One Wife for Another, but Do Not Make Difficulties for the Present Ones in Order To Take Part of What You Gave Them, for if You Dislike Them – Perhaps You Dislike a Thing & Allah May Produce Good in Them), 22-25( Muharramat/Forbidden and Permitted/Lawful Women for Marriage, Mahr/Dowry, Permission to Marry Slave Girls, Adultery Immorality Punishment, Half Punishment to Slave Girl to That of a Free Women), 34(Mention of Men’s Superiority Over Women, in Case of Ill Conduct From Wives, Men Are Instructed To Advise Them/Separate Beds or Even Beat Them), 43(Instructions Regarding Approaching Prayer While Drunk, in Intoxication and in Unclean Situations), 46(Jews Saying of “Raina”, “Samina Wa Asyna” To Distort the Meaning and Insult the Prophet), 56(Change Of Skin In Hell: Every Time Their Skins Are Roasted, God Will Replace Them With Other Skins), 59(Obey God/Allah, Prophet and Rulers), 65(No Iman/Belief Unless Accept Prophet’s Decisions in Your Disputes), 66-79 (Jihad /Qital/ Fighting: Wherever You May Be, Death Will Overtake You, Even if You Should Be Within Towers of Lofty Construction), 82(Much Difference and Contradiction in Quran if It Had Been From (any) Other Than God), 89-91(Migrate or Kill: Do Not Take From Among Them Allies Until They Emigrate for the Cause of Allah, Peace Treaty, Killing in Case of Those Who Do Not Offer You Peace or Restrain Their Hands From Fighting With You), 92-94(Retribution of Killing Without Valid Reason Mentioned in the Book OR by Mistake, Blood Money Etc), 97(to Those Who Were Oppressed, Angels Will Ask “Was Not the Earth of Allah Spacious [Enough] for You To Emigrate Therein?), 101(Qasar/Shortening Of Namaz/Prayers in Wars and During Travel), 108-112(Warning to Those Who Slander and Falsely Charge Innocents),114-115(Prohibition of Secret Counsel and its Few Exceptions), 127(Commandments Legal Ruling Regarding Women Orphans, Marrying Desire With Those Girls Should Be in Justice), 128-129( Women Who Receive Ill Treatment, Fear From Husband, no Sin Upon Them if They Make Terms of Settlement, Men Are Technically Not Able To Do Justice Between Wives but Do Not Incline Completely [Toward One] and Leave Another Hanging), 135(Instructions Regarding Witnesses: in Justice Even if It Be Against Yourselves or Parents and Relatives), 136-145(Traits and Characteristics of Hypocrites, Hypocrites Would Be in the Lowest Depths of Hell: Verse145), 154 (Mention of Mount Tur/Sinai Above Israelites for [Refusal of] Their Covenant, God Said, Enter The Gate Prostrating and That Do Not Transgress on the Sabbath), 157-159(Mention of Crucifixion of Jesus That It Was Not Jesus but a Like Of Him Was Crucified, Jesus Ascended Unto God, and There Is None From the People of the Scripture but Will Believe on Him Before Qiyamah/Last Day), 164(Allah Spoke to Moses With [Direct] Speech), 171(Jesus Not Son of God, but Only his Word & Spirit From Him), 176(Extra/Elaboration of Inheritance and Legal Ruling Regarding Kalala: a Special Case When no Direct Descendants Available)

SURAH NISA BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND

This Surah has 176 verses divided into 24 Rukus/Sections. “Nisa” in Arabic is “Women.” This Surah is named so because it mainly discusses issues and laws regarding women, marriage, inheritance, and Rights of women.  After migration to Madina Muslims became a community and thus require laws and regulations regarding day to day life. The underlying theme of Surah is the family life and instructions to consolidate this basic unit of the society. Laws have been given for marriage and the status of women. Orphans also have a central theme of this Surah as because of battles this issue was becoming intense as more and more families becoming victims of these battles. Thus laws and regulations have been laid down for the proper care of orphans and their inheritance.

The Messenger of God (PBUH) said:

Whoever recites Surah Nisa, is as if this person has spent property in the way of God as much as any Muslim gets by virtue of the purport of this Surah, and also, an equal reward of a person who has freed a slave, will be given to him.

Ali bin Abu Talib (a.s.) said: One who recites Surah Nisa every Friday will be safe from the squeeze of the grave.

The Surah started revealing at an early time in Madina when Muslims were confronting on many fronts. Thus side by side it discusses other major issues of dealing with the opposition and simultaneously propagation of Islam. There were also tensions between this new community of Muslims and nearby tribes of Jews.  Thus it also deals with the people of the Book who were showing a hostile attitude towards Muslims. They have been warned of their conduct.  Simultaneously Muslims have been warned of the hypocrites who were trying to weaken the newly born Muslim society from inside. Features of hypocrisy have been distinctly identified to facilitate the Muslims to differentiate between the two.