Project Description

Determinism And Free Will

Destiny, Fate, Determinism and Free Will: Scientific and Religious Analysis

THIS ARTICLE IS A COMPILATION OF 6. CLICK THE IMAGE TO READ INDIVIDUALLY

Free Will Is An Illusion!

Determinism and Free will

Does Free Will Exist In The Universe?

People ask is there a freewill for us or everything is already determined. This is an old debate in science and philosophy. Philosophers extend this issue up till God that God cannot have free will. A benevolent god always chooses the path that causes most good so therefore has no real choice. Also because an all knowing God instantly knows all of its future actions and its knowledge cannot be wrong, it therefore has no free will to choose otherwise. However a god with no free will cannot be a moral being; it must be morally neutral. Also, if an all powerful and all knowing God exists then this by a long chain of cause and effect denies any free will of any living being.

Free Will Of God And The Problem Of Evil

Our feelings derive from our personality and character, and our choices are influenced by the things we have learned in life: God has the power to change any of the circumstances that form our personality and character, and the things we learn in life are purely down to the providence of God, or, to a long chain of cause and effect which did begin with God and no other. They further say that the free will of god is important for resolving the problem of evil. If God has free will, but never chooses evil, then it could have created life in the same way: With free will, but also never choosing evil. If God has no free will but is still good then there was no point creating evil to grant humans free will as it is possible to be good with no free will. If God, angels and other beings in heaven have free will where there is no evil or suffering, then it cannot be true that god lets evil exist because it is a required side effect of free will.”

Neuroscience Of Free Will

After modern discoveries in physics and biochemistry they say that free will is an illusion. Our amazingly, wonderfully complex brains are comprised of various cognitive systems cycling amongst themselves and generating our thoughts, consciousness, choices and behavior. These systems and their effects all result from the mechanical, inorganic laws of physics, over which we have no control. Consciousness is presented to us as a result of our neurons, our brains, our senses. When we lose these, we lose consciousness. These systems are governed and controlled by neuro chemicals, hormones, ionization, impulses: in short, by biochemistry. Biochemistry is in turn merely a type of chemistry, and when we look at the molecules and atoms that make up our chemistry, they obey the laws of physics.

Freewill and Determinism

Is Free Will Real, Or Is It Just An Illusion?

When the advocate of freewill say that our ‘minds’ are separate to our bodies because of this, our minds are therefore free from cause and effect. They reply that there are conceptual problems with this idea. Most thought must follow cause and effect in order to be coherent. Thinking randomly is no more free will than having your thoughts controlled by neurons. So, our minds must still run along lines of logical cause and effect, or, in other words, in a cycle of thought and after thought. To break this chain of causality is to break the very flow of consciousness. If thoughts are not random, there must be factors which influence what thoughts are thought, and what choices are made. We know that most of those factors are purely physical  sex drives, hunger, hormone driven emotions and the like. They make little sense without a physical foundation. Is there really any room for a nonphysical mind?

Free Will And Time Travel Paradox

One philosopher explains all this in another way by taking into account time travel and creating a paradox that If when traveling back in time we changed the facts of history  however minor  then in the future when we go back, we will not be able to make those changes because they will not have occurred. As we can’t make those changes, it means they will always occur as they did originally. He imagined as follows:

The Nature of Free Will. The Doctrine of Determinism

Disappointed in love, I wish myself dead. More than that, I wish that I had never lived. Given that I have a time machine, I am in a position to bring this about. So I travel back to some suitably distant moment before my conception, find a relevant relative e.g my grandparent and strike them dead. I thus bring it about that I was never conceived. If my action is successful, who is it who prevents my conception? It cannot be me, for it is now apparently true that I was never conceived, and so never grew up to step into a time machine to prevent my conception. I cannot, then, prevent my conception. This itself may seem to have further worrying implications. For if I cannot prevent my own conception, despite being present at the right time. Does this not suggest that I am not, as a traveller into the past, a free agent? If this is an implication, then it extends to our ordinary, non time traveling situation. For I am not free to change the future, either.

Free Will And Determinism In Religion

The Freedom Of Man In Setting His Destination

Is Free Will or Determinism Correct?So you can see that throughout history there are long debates on determinism and freewill. Some follow one school of thought others follow the second one. Now the answer is that reality is in between. That means man has a free will in the matter of his actions. Although his free will is by divine decree. Because God is the ultimate and independent cause of all causes it is correct to relate all that exists to God. Similarly, because God has granted man free will in his actions, it is also correct to relate the actions of man to his own choice.

Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityWhen a chosen slave of God was asked this question by a man” What is Fate ?”he said,” Lift your one foot in the air.” the man did so. he than said,” Now lift the other one.” (while being in the same position) the man replied,”I cannot” he said,” This is answer to your question. Half of it God has given to you in your hand, and the rest He has kept to Himself.” So in other words Man is free to will what he wills but he cannot will what he wills. That is man is free to do a task a job in whatever manner he likes but to choose/reach and come across to that job is beyond his control.

When another chosen slave of God asked this question he replied “Whatever that you could blame man for it, is his action and whatever you could not blame him for it, is the act of God. God blames man for stealing, committing adultery etc. Thus, these are the acts of man. However, God does not blame man why he is not born rich or why his skin color is black or fair. Thus, these are the acts of God.”

Do Not Blame Your Destiny

O people therefore do not blame your destiny. It is actually only a few things that are determined which are mainly related to your birth, parents and all that atmosphere related to your parents including the social economic environment of your home and country. Most of the things are in your hand and with effort and struggle you can even change your capacities, capabilities and lastly your destiny.  Also keep in mind that your Lord is so just that in any case in the hereafter He will judge you after considering all the factors around you and will not reward or punish you only on your accounts. And above all as I discussed in detail in part 2 the life of this world is like a blink of an eye so this small time of affliction is nothing as compared to the life which is waiting for you ahead.

A Universe Of Possibilities

This universe He made is so mysterious that you cannot grasp the whole wisdom behind its creation. God has made for you choices and options which pop up every second and He has given you free will to choose among these options. It is a world, a universe of possibilities. So don’t blame your destiny only. A slave can become a ruler, a weak can become the strongest person, an ignorant can become the most wise.

Free Will: The Philosophical View
A world of possibilities where anyone can reach to any level. Its just a matter of how big a person thinks and how accurately he acts upon that. And above that a huge mercy of your Lord is the promise of hereafter so that those who could have not successfully utilized their options here and are not wrongdoers they will have peace and pleasure. They will have there whatever they ask and whatever their soul desire. What no eye has seen, no ear has heard, nor the heart of any man imagined.

If my Lord Wills I will continue this topic in next program.

Do We Have Free Will? The Nature of Divine Providence

Determinism vs. Free WillO mankind you always get confused and all these debates of philosophers that I discussed in part 11 are because you think that as God knows everything and it is already written therefore you have no freewill. Therefore mankind mostly blame their destiny for all the mishaps they get in their lives. O people this universe is a universe of possibilities where anyone can reach to any level. God has made for you choices and options which pop up every second and God’s ability of knowing your future does not in any way restricting you from acting as a free Agent in this universe.

Adam & Devil: Different Reaction Different Outcome

Same thing devil did when Adam and all others were caught red handed after their mistake in the climax of that episode in Eden. Rather than accepting his jealousy, arrogance, and mistake he put the blame on destiny. In Last Scripture God tells in Adams story that Devil said, “My Lord, because You have put me in error, I will surely make disobedience attractive to them on earth, and I will mislead them all. So devil put all his blame on God or destiny while Adams reaction was opposite and he repent and asked forgiveness for his error.

As devil is with us all human beings and Jinns so whenever we blame destiny and God’s act is because of that evil suggestion devil put in our heart. So you blame destiny only when you fails or events things go against you. You never blame destiny when you gets good.

Free Will in Religion

Is it that a criminal is a criminal because God has already written for him?

Now because God always says in His scriptures like in the last scripture God said “And you do not will except that God wills  Lord of the worlds”. This should not be confused for Example with the case of a person going to kill someone. Now God has written for him that he would be a killer but that does not mean He made him to kill that person. Its only that God by His will gave us the liberty to decide between our options and choose them. If you want guidance He will guide you.

God Facilitates You In Whatever Direction You Want To Go.

How it happens lets consider another example as in Part 11, I told you that God has made for you choices and options which pop up every second and He has given you free will to choose among these options. Consider you are sitting in a library or at your home with your laptop and surfing on internet. Now as per God’s revelations and scriptures first part of effort you have to put and than God will help you Now if you decide to read or to see some stuff some book some video, who can force you not to read or watch that. And you also have full liberty to see search good things or Bad things available. But after you exercise your option and decide to consume that time in some good work either related to your education or your religion God facilitates you in that and you may come across some very good stuff which later might change your way of thinking and even your life. God facilitates you in whatever direction you want to go. This is the basis of all inventions in human history all people who are struggling in some field got new ideas just like a blink of an eye. This would never happen without putting any effort on your part. So it’s Actually God’s will and human effort that work together in this universe of yours. Same principal is for prophets and righteous. They got God’s help after they put all their effort. Red sea parted when Moses struggled and of 80 years of age. Madina became islamic state after continuous struggle of decades and when Muhammad was 53 years old.

Free Will in Islam

Consider an Example

Now consider you are owner of a business and you have 20 employees. One day you announce that you will give a Cash prize to those 10 persons who perform certain tasks and targets more than others. Now as you have those employees with you since few years and you know all of them very well, you write in your notepad the name of those ten in advance who will win that prize. And by the end of task it happens that they are exactly the same as you have already written in your notepad. I ask you a question that by writing this does by any means you have favored them to win or restricted the chances of others. But actually those whose names you have already written as the winners are the employees that do the right things, hard work and sincere effort anyway whether you give the incentive of prize or not. While the others are the ones who actually don’t do anything to deserve that regardless of you write their names or not.

Another example now consider one of your friend gets a time machine he goes in future and look all your life till end then comes back and writes a book on you. Now doest it mean he restricted your free will and forced you to do those actions he has written in the book.

With Authority Comes The Responsibility

I know that these analogies have many short comings as God is omniscient and omnipotent and He not only knows your future but also overall dominant on your will as he created you and all the abilities you have got are actually granted by Him. And these are the actual limitations and therefore everyone will be accounted for only that much which he has been bestowed with, not more than that. A person responsible for a small house will not be held accountable for the matters, wrongdoings, injustice and corruption going in the town. Thats why it is a serious matter and big burden if someone has got a position in society as with authority comes the responsibilities.

Destiny And Free Will

Free Will and Moral Responsibility.

God’s knowledge is different from the knowledge of his creation as it’s not preceded by ignorance not that God did not know and then he learned nor is it followed by forgetfulness that he now knows but in the future it may slip from His memory.

Determinism in religion

Evil Is Not Be Attributed To God

God created the actions of people. They are attributed to God as He created them put them into existence. It is not that God created Good and evil actions it is that He made their existence possible but the human beings earned the action. Evil is not be attributed to God. Evil is relative as for example poison of snake is an evil for human beings but a good thing for snake, teeth and claws of tiger have evil for other animals but blessing for him, horns of bull have evil for other but good for his defense. So as in the Last scripture God says  “Say, I seek refuge in the Lord of daybreak From the evil of that which He created And from the evil of darkness when it settles”. Destiny and FateHere God says to seek refuge from the evil of that (creation) which he created and not saying from the evil of which He created. So creation, events, aspects exist which have evil in them but they are not created as pure evil. Even Devil God created is not pure Evil or created for the purpose of evil. It is like a by product of creation as you get from your factories during manufacturing something good. And its purpose is to make this universe a trial without devil how do we get rewarded as if there is no negative thought and only good exist than there is no  purpose of creating this universe If God had willed that all should be good and pious and obey Him he would not have created you, as those beings which are with Him enough for His praises and glorify him morning and evening.

We are responsible for the effort not for the results

O people our responsibility is to do struggle to put our effort and than to pray and ask for God’s help. We are just responsible for the effort not for the results, leave results on God, as if succeeds then good. And even if no result and success here you will be successful in hereafter. Specially Whenever you do struggle for God’s cause, for some bigger objective, above yourself for the sake of humanity than remember success is not a criteria. As Jesus is one of the biggest prophets of God but apparently failed in world. While there are some slaves of your Lord who were extremely successful in this world in their missions. It doesn’t matter if 4000 are watching this program or 4000 million. If God Wills then a time will come that He will put effect in it.  As mentioned in the last scripture I want to live my life like that and to proclaim that. “Indeed my prayer, my rites, my rituals, my work, my living and my dying are for God, Lord of the worlds. He has no partner; with this I have been commanded. And I am the first of those who surrender to Him.

Human freedom and denial of determinism
If my Lord Wills I will continue and conclude this topic in next program.

God has made for you choices and options which pop up every second

O mankind your Lord does not punish people on their first sins. He gives them chance to repent. It is not actually the sin, wrongdoing or injustice that is bad in the eyes of your Lord but it is its repetition. Repeating a wrong act again and again, not repenting and not feeling it wrong is what is bad. O people it is a world, a universe of possibilities where anyone can reach to any level.

The Freedom To Do Otherwise

God has made for you choices and options which pop up every second and He has given you free will to choose among these options. There is no limit. If you are a poor person or even a slave, you can become a king a ruler. O people if you are feeling miserable and feel yourself in a vicious cycle from where there is no way out just start doing one thing only. Start choosing every moment those options which are best in terms of morality. Don’t consider even for a second at those options which you think are good to achieve your purpose but have something morally wrong in them. Your Lord has made this Universe like that. If you choose morally wrong options He will only punish you when you keep on doing its repetition and if you choose right options He will soon take you out of misery and vicious cycle and will send His blessings from where you would have not imagined.

Do We Have Free Will? The Nature of Divine Providence

Consider an Example: Options Theory

To understand it more I give you an example consider that you are sitting with your wife and as you have free will and options all the time. You utilize the option of moving your hand and it happens that it touches your wife’s eye and hurt her. Now as soon as it happens another set of options and choices open up for you that either admit your mistake and ask her sorry or another option to say that it was her fault why she brought her face near your hand, or to become more irrational and react in anger, so on and so forth. If you choose the first option that matter closes as such with good impression of yours in her mind and some other matter starts simultaneously. But if you select second or third option the next outcome most probably will be that she will react and may be start arguing with you saying that you are an ill mannered person and you end up in abusing her. Keeping it short and just for understanding the concept and this example, you may ask her to leave your home. She starts weeping and crying. Now a set of other options and choices open up for you either you now realize your mistake and say sorry or remain stubborn and keep on repeating the wrong thing. If you choose the first option than that matter closes as such and some other matter starts simultaneously.

Every Choice Of Yours Creates A New Universe

But if you select the second option that is again a morally wrong option a new scenarios will pop up out of it. She leaves the house and may be that matter ends up on divorce. Again many options for you but if you keep on choosing the wrong one it will end up on divorce. Then see you have a totally different world in front of your eyes in which you are in deep pain and lonely and have a feel of guilt in your heart. So you would have a punishment here and as well as in hereafter. You can clearly see that you have not been punished on the wrong act but on its repetition. This example can be taken both ways with wife as an aggressor. As these days women also do much wrong.

Predestination Or Free Will?

Predestination in the Quran

Human Freedom And Denial Of Determinism

To make it simple for you I named it  “Options Theory”. And its not a theory it is a law governing this universe of yours and later in next programs I will give you proofs and versus from the Holy scriptures which actually you totally misunderstood.

Think Bigger

A Universe Of Possibilities

This universe He made is so mysterious that you cannot grasp the whole wisdom behind its creation. God has made for you choices and options which pop up every second and He has given you free will to choose among these options. It is a world, a universe of possibilities. So don’t blame your destiny only. A slave can become a ruler, a weak can become the strongest person, an ignorant can become the most wise. A world of possibilities where anyone can reach to any level. Its just a matter of how big a person thinks and how accurately he acts upon that. And above that a huge mercy of your Lord is the promise of hereafter so that those who have not successfully utilized their options here and are not wrongdoers they will have peace and pleasure. They will have there whatever they ask and whatever their soul desire. What no eye has seen, no ear has heard, nor the heart of any man imagined.

The freedom of man in setting his destination

The affairs of a believer is strange that there is no divine decree about him but eventually it will be to his benefit.” If he gets some blessing then he thanks God and thus there is good for him, and if he is harmed, then he shows patience and thus there is good for him.

Arguments in favor of Free Will. Ethical Arguments for Free Will

The Key To Success

Most Of The Things Are In Your Hands

O people you are not here in this universe helpless before a cruel determined unchanging fate. Most of the things are in your hand and with effort and struggle you can even change your capacities, capabilities and even your destiny. O people our responsibility is to do struggle to put our effort and than to pray and ask for God’s help. We are just responsible for the effort not for the results, leave results on God. O people you are actually a free agent in this universe having your own choice to draw, sow, propagate and grow whatever you like to draw and grow in this canvas in this soil of universal opportunities. Divine vicegerency, eternal life of peace and pleasure or Eternal despair whatever outcome you like, it is in your hands. Arguments Against Free WillAs I told you about the gift of options from your Lord popping for you every moment and the way to utilize these thus everything is actually possible for you provided you have will and you take an initiative.

Many Paths, Many Destinies And Many Universes

O mankind there is scope for many possibilities, many paths, many destinies and many worlds for you. What matters is only what options you pick every second when they pop up with the changing moments. The options you pick will lead to that kind of destiny. If you are feeling miserable and feel yourself in a vicious cycle from where there is no way out then do just two things first pray your Lord for another destiny as there is no limit of destinies with your Lord its already woven in the fabric of this cosmos this universe of yours so after pray start doing one thing only I.e every moment choose morally right options whenever they pop up. If you do this and change yourself your destiny stands changed.

يتسائل الناس هل هناك ما يُسمى بالإرادة الحُرة أم أنّ كل شيء مُحددُ بالفعل. تلك مناظرةٌ قديمةٌ في العلم والفلسفة. لقد جعل الفلاسفة ذلك الأمر يتسع ليشمل الله، أن الله لا يمتلك إرادةً حرةً؛ فالإله الخيّر دائمًا ما يختار الطريق الذي سيؤدى إلى الخير، فلذا لايوجد هناك أي اختيار حقيقيّ. وأيضًا لأنّ الله الواسع العلم، العليم بكل شيء، والذي يعلم كل المستقبل، ولا يُمكن أن تكون معرفته خاطئة، ولذا فلا توجد هناك إرادة حرة لنختار منها. ومع ذلك، فإنّ الإله الذي لا يملك إرادةً حرةً لا يُمكن أن يكون أخلاقيًا، فيجب أن تكون طبيعته أخلاقية. وأيضًا، إذا كان الله العليم القويّ موجود عبر سلسلةٍ طويلةٍ من الأسباب والتأثيرات، فسوف يُنكر أي إرادة حرة لأي مخلوق حيّ. مشاعرُنا تأتي من شخصياتنا، وخياراتنا تتأثر بالأشياء التي تعلمناها في حياتنا: والله لديه القوة لتغيير أي ظروفٍ من شخصياتنا، والأشياء التي تعلمناها في الحياة هى محض عناية من الله، أو بسبب سلسلةٍ طويلةٍ من التأثير والسبب والذي يكون مع الله ولا أحد أخر. إنّهم يقولون أيضًا أنّ إرادة الله الحرة مهمة لحل مسألة الشر. إذا كان الله يمتلك الإرادة الحرة، ولكنّه لم يختر الشر أبدًا، إذن فإنّ الله كان بإمكانه أنّ يخلق الحياة بنفس الطريقة ولكن بدون أن يختار الشر. وإذا لم يكن لله إرادة حرة ولكنّه مازال جيدًا، فإنّه لامعنى لخلق الشر لضمان إرادة البشر الحرة حيث أنّه من الممكن أن تكون جيدًا بدون الإرادة الحرة. إذا كان الله، الملائكة، والمخلوقات الاخرى في الجنة، كانت لديهم الإرادة الحرة؛ فلن يكون هناك شرٌ أو معاناة. ثم لايمكن أن يكون صحيحًا أن الله سمح للشر بالوجود، لأن هذا هو أثر جانبيّ للإرادة الحرة”

بعد الاكتشافات الحديثة في الفيزياء والكيماء الحيويّة إنهم يقولون أنّ الإرادة الحرة وهم. وأن عقولنا الخياليّة، الوهميّة تتآلف من مجموعة من الأنظمة التي تدور وتتوائم فيما بينها وتولد أفكارنا، وعينا، واختيارتنا وسلوكنا. تلك الأنظمة وتأثيراتهم تنتج من قوانين الفيزياء أو القوانين الطبيعيّة، والتي لا نملك أي سيطرةٍ عليها. الوعي يُقدّم إلينا في وعينا عبر الخلايا العصبية، عقولنا، حواسنا. وعندما نفقد هؤلاء، نفقد الوعيّ. تلك الأنظمة محكومة ويتم التحكم فيها عبر المواد الكيمائيّة، الهرمونات، التاين، النبضات، باختصار: عبر الكيماء الحيويّة. الكيمياء الحيويّة هى نوع من الكيمياء، وعندما ننظر إلى الجزئيات والذرات التي كونت الكيمياء، فإنّهم يتبعون قوانين الفيزياء.

عندما يقولُ المدافع عن الإرادة الحُرة أن “عقولنا” منفصلةٌ عن أجسادنا فإذًا، فإن عقولنا حرةٌ من قوانين السبب والنتيجة. ويجيبون أن هناك مشاكل مفاهيمية مع هذه الفكرة. يجبُ على مُعظم الأفكار أن تتبع قوانين السبب والنتيجة لكي تبدو مُتسقةً. التفكير بشكل عشوائي ليس نابعًا من الإرادة الحُرة أكثر من أفكارك التي تُسيطر عليها الخلايا العصبية. لذلك، فإن عقولنا لا تزال تعمل وفقًا لمنطق السبب والنتيجة، أو، بعبارةٍ أخرى، في دائرةٍ من التفكير ومابعد التفكير. ولكسر هذه السلسلة من السببية يجب كسر تدفق الوعي. إذا كانت الأفكارُ ليست عشوائيةً، فيجب أن تكون هناك عواملُ تؤثر على ما هي الأفكار، وعلى الخيارات التي يتم اتخاذها. ونحن نعلم أن مُعظم هذه العوامل هي عوامل فيزيائيّة محضة – مُثيرات الجنس، الجوع، العواطف التي تُحركها الهرمونات، إلى آخره. فهي لا معنى لها دون أساسٍ مادي. هل هناك حقا أي مساحةٍ للعقل غير المادي؟

يُفسر أحدُ الفلاسفةِ كلَ هذا بطريقةٍ أخرى، إذا جعلنا السفر عبر الزمن مثالًا، وخلقنا مفارقةً أنه إذا كان السفرُ إلى الماضي في الوقت المناسب يُساعدنا على تغير حقائق التاريخ – مهما كانت طفيفةً – فإننا عندما نعود إلى المستقبل ،فإننا لن تكون قادرين على إجراء تلك التغييرات لأنها لن تحدث. وبما أننا لا نستطيع إجراء هذه التغييرات، فهذا يعني أنها ستحدث دائما كما حدثت في السابق. وتَخيّل الآتي: لقد فشلتُ في الحب، أتمنى أن أموتَ، وأكثر من ذلك، أتمنى لو لم أولد أصلًا. وبما أنّي أمتلك آلة الزمن، وبما أنّي أمتلك القدرة على تحقيق هذا، لذلك أسافر إلى الماضي في اللحظة المُناسبة قبل حملي، أعثر على قريبٍ لي مثل جدتي، ثم أقوم بضربها حتى الموت. أنا بذلك لن أجعل نفسي موجودًا أبدًا. إذا نجح عملي، فمن هو هذا الذي يمنع ولادتي؟ لا يمكن أن يكون أنا، لأنه من الواضح أنيّ لم أكن لأكون موجودًا الأن، وبالتالي لم أكن لأكبر وأنمو وأخطو داخل آلة الزمن لمنع ولادتي. لا يُمكن أن يكون أنا. يبدو أن هذا الأمر ينطوي على أشياء أكثر إثارة للقلق. لأنه إذا لم أستطع منع ولادتي، على الرغم من كوني موجودٌ في الوقت المناسب. وهل هذا لا يُوحي بأنني لست مسافرًا في الماضي، عميلًا حرً؟ إذا كان هذا ضمنًا، فإنه يمتد إلى وضعنا العادي، وإلى حالة عدم السفر الزمنيّ. لأنني لست حرًا في تغيير المستقبل