QURAN SUMMARY: AL FATIHAH

Surah Fatihah Background And Summary of Main Topics.

Surah Fatihah Statistics: Total Number of Verses, Revelation Period, Main Characters, Theme And Key Verses.

NAME: الفاتحة, أم الكتاب، أم القرآن، السبع المثاني، الحمد، الشفاء، سورة الصلاة، الأساس. Al-Fatiha, Umm ul-Kitab, Umm ul-Qur’an, As-Sab’ ul-Mathani, Al-Hamd, Ash-Shifa’, Surat As-Salah, Al-‘Asas.

This Surah is named so because of its content and placement in Quran. Fatihah means a Key an Opener. It could be for anything like in this case Opener or Preface of the Quran.

ENGLISH NAME: The Opening, Mother of the Book, Mother of the Koran, The Oft-Recited Seven, Praise, The Cure, Chapter of the Prayer, The Foundation.

CHAPTER NUMBER: 1

SURAH FATIHAH TOTAL VERSES: 7

SURAH FATIHAH TOTAL WORDS: 29

TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 26

TOTAL LETTERS: 143

REVELATION PERIOD:

Meccan. Approx. 610-615 AD.

MAIN CHARACTERS:

God, His Servant/Slave

SURAH FATIHAH MAIN TOPICS:

Supplication to Allah for guidance

SURAH FATIHAH KEY VERSES:

 ٥  إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

5  It is You we worship and You we ask for help.

SUMMARY OF TOPICS

Supplication to God  for guidance told by God Himself. The primary and foundational  principles of the Qur’an in a condensed form. A prayer to God which encompasses all needs and requirements of human race.

SURAH FATIHAH BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND

One of the earliest Revelations to the Holy Prophet. As per Traditions it was the first complete Surah but not the first in the order of revelation before that only few isolated verses were revealed which later became part of Surah Alaq, Muddathir, etc. This Surah is named so because of its content and placement in Quran. Fatihah means a Key an Opener. It could be for anything like in this case Opener or Preface of the Quran. That is why soon after that the second Surah starts with these words “This is the Book whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqoon”. So Allah gives answer of your prayer where you asked Him to show you guidance.

This Surah is both a prayer and an introduction of the Quran.  A prayer that Allah has taught to all those who want to spend their lives according to God’s Will.  However, the real relation between Surah Fatihah and the Quran is not that of an introduction, but of a prayer and its answer. Surah Fatihah is the prayer from the slave of God, and the Quran is the answer from the Lord/God to that prayer.

This Surah is called Al-Fatihah, that is, the Opener of the Book, the Surah with which prayers are begun. It is also called, Umm Al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book). In the beginning of the Book of Tafsir, in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari said; “It is called Umm Al-Kitab, because the Qur’an starts with it and because the prayer is started by reciting it.” It was also said that it is called Umm Al-Kitab, because it contains the meanings of the entire Qur’an. Ibn Jarir said, “The Arabs call every comprehensive matter that contains several specific areas an Umm. For instance, they call the skin that surrounds the brain, Umm Ar-Ra’s. They also call the flag that gathers the ranks of the army an Umm.” He also said, “Makkah was called Umm Al-Qura, (the Mother of the Villages) because it is the grandest and the leader of all villages. It was also said that the earth was made starting from Makkah.”

Further, Ahmad ibn Hanbal recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated about Umm Al-Qur’an that the Prophet said,

هِيَ أُمُّ الْقُرْآنِ وَهِيَ السَّبْعُ الْمَثَانِي وَهِيَ الْقُرْآنُ الْعَظِيمُ

(It is Umm Al-Qur’an, the seven repeated (verses) and the Glorious Qur’an.)According to the majority of the scholars. In an authentic Hadith recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبَ الْعَالَمِينَ أُمُّ الْقُرْآنِ وَأُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَالسَّبْعُ الْمَثَانِي وَالْقُرْآنُ الْعَظِيمُ

(Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin is the Mother of the Qur’an, the Mother of the Book, and the seven repeated Ayat of the Glorious Qur’an.)

It is also called Al-Hamd and As-Salah, because the Prophet said that his Lord said,

Al-Fatihah was called the Salah, because reciting it is a condition for the correctness of Salah – the prayer. Al-Fatihah was also called Ash-Shifa’ (the Cure).

It is also called Ar-Ruqyah (remedy), since in the Sahih, there is the narration of Abu Sa`id telling the story of the Companion who used Al-Fatihah as a remedy for the tribal chief who was poisoned. Later, the Messenger of Allah said to a Companion,

وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ أَنَّهَا رُقْيَةٌ

(How did you know that it is a Ruqyah)

It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (a.s) that he said: If you recite al-Hamd on a dead body 70 times and the soul returns to it, it will not be surprising.

It is narrated from Imam Baqir (a.s) that he said: All those who do not benefit by Surah Hamd and Qul huwallaaho Ahad (Surah Tawheed), will not benefit by anything. All the maladies are cured by these two chapters.

Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not read Umm Al-Qur’an, then his prayer is incomplete He said it thrice.

Abu Hurayrah was asked, “When we stand behind the Imam” He said, “Read it to yourself, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(Allah, the Exalted, said, `I have divided the prayer (Al-Fatihah) into two halves between Myself and My servant, and My servant shall have what he asks for.’ If he says, “All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of existence”. Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.’ When the servant says, “The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful” Allah says, `My servant has glorified Me.’ When he says, “The Owner of the Day of Recompense” Allah says, `My servant has glorified Me, or `My servant has related all matters to Me.’ When he says, (You (alone) we worship, and You (alone) we ask for help.) Allah says, `This is between Me and My servant, and My servant shall acquire what he sought.’ When he says, “Guide us to the straight path.The way of those on whom You have granted Your grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your anger, nor of those who went astray”, Allah says, `This is for My servant, and My servant shall acquire what he asked for.’).’

Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “The Messenger of Allah went out while Ubayy bin Ka`b was praying and said, (O Ubayy!) Ubayy did not answer him. The Prophet said, (O Ubayy!) Ubayy prayed faster then went to the Messenger of Allah saying, `Peace be unto you, O Messenger of Allah!’ He said, (Peace be unto you. O Ubayy, what prevented you from answering me when I called you) He said, `O Messenger of Allah! I was praying.’ He said, (Did you not read among what Allah has sent down to me,)

ٱسۡتَجِيبُواْ لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمۡ لِمَا يُحۡيِيڪُمۡ‌ۖ

(Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life) He said, `Yes, O Messenger of Allah! I will not do it again.’ the Prophet said,

أَتُحِبُّ أَنْ أُعَلِّمَكَ سُورَةً لَمْ تَنْزِلْ لَا فِي التَّورَاةِ وَلَا فِي الْإِنْجِيلِ وَلَا فِي الزَّبُورِ وَلَا فِي الْفُرْقَانِ مِثْلَهَا؟

(Would you like me to teach you a Surah the likes of which nothing has been revealed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur (Psalms) or the Furqan (the Qur’an)) He said, `Yes, O Messenger of Allah!’ The Messenger of Allah said, (I hope that I will not leave through this door until you have learned it.) He (Ka`b) said, `The Messenger of Allah held my hand while speaking to me. Meanwhile I was slowing down fearing that he might reach the door before he finished his conversation. When we came close to the door, I said: O Messenger of Allah! What is the Surah that you have promised to teach me’ He said, (What do you read in the prayer.) Ubayy said, `So I recited Umm Al-Qur’an to him.’ He said,

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ فِي التَّورَاةِ وَلَا فِي الْإِنْجِيلِ وَلَا فِي الزَّبُورِ وَلَا فِي الْفُرْقَانِ مِثْلَهَا إِنَّهَا السَّبْعُ الْمَثَانِي

(By Him in Whose Hand is my soul! Allah has never revealed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur or the Furqan a Surah like it. It is the seven repeated verses that I was given.)”

Also, At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and in his narration, the Prophet said,

إِنَّهَا مِنَ السَّبْعِ الْمَثَانِي وَالْقُرْآنِ الْعَظِيمِ الَّذِي أُعْطِيتُهُ

(It is the seven repeated verses and the Glorious Qur’an that I was given.)