NAME: الفاتحة, أم الكتاب، أم القرآن، السبع المثاني، الحمد، الشفاء، سورة الصلاة، الأساس. Al-Fatiha, Umm ul-Kitab, Umm ul-Qur’an, As-Sab’ ul-Mathani, Al-Hamd, Ash-Shifa’, Surat As-Salah, Al-‘Asas.
This Surah is named so because of its content and placement in Quran. Fatihah means a Key an Opener. It could be for anything like in this case Opener or Preface of the Quran.
ENGLISH NAME: The Opening, Mother of the Book, Mother of the Koran, The Oft-Recited Seven, Praise, The Cure, Chapter of the Prayer, The Foundation.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 1
SURAH FATIHAH TOTAL VERSES: 7
SURAH FATIHAH TOTAL WORDS: 29
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 26
TOTAL LETTERS: 143
Meccan. Approx. 610-615 AD.
God, His Servant/Slave
SURAH FATIHAH MAIN TOPICS:
Supplication to Allah for guidance
SURAH FATIHAH KEY VERSES:
٥ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
5 It is You we worship and You we ask for help.
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
Supplication to God for guidance told by God Himself. The primary and foundational principles of the Qur’an in a condensed form. A prayer to God which encompasses all needs and requirements of human race.
SURAH FATIHAH BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND
One of the earliest Revelations to the Holy Prophet. As per Traditions it was the first complete Surah but not the first in the order of revelation before that only few isolated verses were revealed which later became part of Surah Alaq, Muddathir, etc. This Surah is named so because of its content and placement in Quran. Fatihah means a Key an Opener. It could be for anything like in this case Opener or Preface of the Quran. That is why soon after that the second Surah starts with these words “This is the Book whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqoon”. So Allah gives answer of your prayer where you asked Him to show you guidance.
This Surah is both a prayer and an introduction of the Quran. A prayer that Allah has taught to all those who want to spend their lives according to God’s Will. However, the real relation between Surah Fatihah and the Quran is not that of an introduction, but of a prayer and its answer. Surah Fatihah is the prayer from the slave of God, and the Quran is the answer from the Lord/God to that prayer.
This Surah is called Al-Fatihah, that is, the Opener of the Book, the Surah with which prayers are begun. It is also called, Umm Al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book). In the beginning of the Book of Tafsir, in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari said; “It is called Umm Al-Kitab, because the Qur’an starts with it and because the prayer is started by reciting it.” It was also said that it is called Umm Al-Kitab, because it contains the meanings of the entire Qur’an. Ibn Jarir said, “The Arabs call every comprehensive matter that contains several specific areas an Umm. For instance, they call the skin that surrounds the brain, Umm Ar-Ra’s. They also call the flag that gathers the ranks of the army an Umm.” He also said, “Makkah was called Umm Al-Qura, (the Mother of the Villages) because it is the grandest and the leader of all villages. It was also said that the earth was made starting from Makkah.”
Further, Ahmad ibn Hanbal recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated about Umm Al-Qur’an that the Prophet said,
هِيَ أُمُّ الْقُرْآنِ وَهِيَ السَّبْعُ الْمَثَانِي وَهِيَ الْقُرْآنُ الْعَظِيمُ
(It is Umm Al-Qur’an, the seven repeated (verses) and the Glorious Qur’an.)According to the majority of the scholars. In an authentic Hadith recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبَ الْعَالَمِينَ أُمُّ الْقُرْآنِ وَأُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَالسَّبْعُ الْمَثَانِي وَالْقُرْآنُ الْعَظِيمُ
(Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin is the Mother of the Qur’an, the Mother of the Book, and the seven repeated Ayat of the Glorious Qur’an.)
It is also called Al-Hamd and As-Salah, because the Prophet said that his Lord said,
Al-Fatihah was called the Salah, because reciting it is a condition for the correctness of Salah – the prayer. Al-Fatihah was also called Ash-Shifa’ (the Cure).
It is also called Ar-Ruqyah (remedy), since in the Sahih, there is the narration of Abu Sa`id telling the story of the Companion who used Al-Fatihah as a remedy for the tribal chief who was poisoned. Later, the Messenger of Allah said to a Companion,
وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ أَنَّهَا رُقْيَةٌ
(How did you know that it is a Ruqyah)
It is narrated from Imam Sadiq (a.s) that he said: If you recite al-Hamd on a dead body 70 times and the soul returns to it, it will not be surprising.
It is narrated from Imam Baqir (a.s) that he said: All those who do not benefit by Surah Hamd and Qul huwallaaho Ahad (Surah Tawheed), will not benefit by anything. All the maladies are cured by these two chapters.
Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,
Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not read Umm Al-Qur’an, then his prayer is incomplete He said it thrice.
Abu Hurayrah was asked, “When we stand behind the Imam” He said, “Read it to yourself, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(Allah, the Exalted, said, `I have divided the prayer (Al-Fatihah) into two halves between Myself and My servant, and My servant shall have what he asks for.’ If he says, “All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of existence”. Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.’ When the servant says, “The