NAME: الفجر, Al-Fajr.
Name taken from Verse 1 where there is a mention of the word ”Fajr”.
1 By the dawn
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: The Dawn.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 89
SURAH FAJR TOTAL VERSES: 30
SURAH FAJR TOTAL WORDS: 139
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 114
TOTAL LETTERS: 584
Meccan, Approx. 615 – 618 AD.
God, Ad, Iram, Thamud, Pharaoh, Believers, Disbelievers.
SURAH FAJR MAIN TOPICS:
Example Of Previous Nations Because of Their Wrongdoings God Destroyed Them, Man’s Behavior When God Favors or Tries Him, Description Of The Last Day.
SURAH FAJR KEY VERSES:
1 By the dawn
٢ وَلَيَالٍ عَشْرٍ
2 And [by] ten nights
٣ وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ
3 And [by] the even [number] and the odd
١٥ فَأَمَّا الْإِنْسَانُ إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَأَكْرَمَهُ وَنَعَّمَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَكْرَمَنِ
15 And as for man, when his Lord tries him and [thus] is generous to him and favors him, he says, “My Lord has honored me.”
٢٢ وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا
22 And your Lord has come and the angels, rank upon rank,
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
1-5 (Swear By Dawn, Ten Nights, Even & Odd, And [by] the Night when it passes), 6-14(Example Of Previous Nations Of Thamud, Ad And Pharaoh, Because of Their Wrongdoings God Destroyed Them), 15-20( When God Favors Man All Good But when He Tries Man He says God has humiliated him, Man Do Not Think About The Poor And The Orphans), 21-30(Description Of The Last Day: Earth has been Pounded and crushed, Lord has come and the angels, rank upon rank, That Day Most People Will Regret, But Righteous Will Be Pleased)
SURAH FAJR BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACKGROUND
This Surah has 30 verses. It takes its name from verse 1: “وَالْفَجْرِ” (By the dawn) where the word “الفجر” meaning “The Dawn” appears. This Surah was revealed in Mecca most probably in a middle stage of Prophet Muhammad’s preaching in Mecca when persecution had already started.
The Surah begins with an Oath/swear of four things The Dawn, Ten nights, Even and Odd and The Night when it passes. All this is actually pointing to the fact that “Only Change is Permanent” and towards the “Changing Altering Times” which the next verses are pointing that how the previous Nations which were on the peak of civilizations ended with a downfall. The Surah talks about the judgment of God, the reward and punishment that will take place in the hereafter.
Nasai recorded a narration from Jabir that Muadh prayed a prayer and a man came and followed him in the prayer. Muadh made the prayer long, so the man went and prayed alone at the side of the Mosque. When Muadh was informed of this, he said, “He is a hypocrite.” Then Muadh informed the Prophet of God PBUH of what happened. The Prophet then asked the man, and he replied, “Prophet of God PBUH! I came to pray with him, but he made the prayer too long for me. So I left him and prayed at the side of the Mosque. Then I went to feed my she camel.” The Prophet of God PBUH then said,
أَفَتَّانٌ يَا مُعَاذُ؟ أَيْنَ أَنْتَ مِنْ سَبِّحِ ٱسۡمَ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡأَعۡلَى وَٱلشَّمۡسِ وَضُحَٮٰهَا وَٱلۡفَجۡرِ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ
Are you causing trouble O Muadh? Why don’t you recite Glorify the Name of your Lord the Most High, By the sun and its brightness, By the dawn, and By the night as it envelops.