QURAN SUMMARY: GHAFIR

Surah Ghafir Background And Summary of Main Topics.

Surah Ghafir Statistics: Total Number of Verses, Revelation Period, Main Characters, Theme And Key Verses.

NAME: غافر, المؤمن, Ghafir, Al-Mu’min. 

Two names of this Surah. Names taken from Verse 3 and 28 where there is a mention of the word “Ghafir” and “Mumin”.

٣  غَافِرِ الذَّنْبِ وَقَابِلِ التَّوْبِ شَدِيدِ الْعِقَابِ ذِي الطَّوْلِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ إِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ
3  The forgiver of sin, acceptor of repentance, severe in punishment, owner of abundance. There is no deity except Him; to Him is the destination.

٢٨  وَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مُؤْمِنٌ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَكْتُمُ إِيمَانَهُ أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلًا أَنْ يَقُولَ رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ وَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ يَكُ كَاذِبًا فَعَلَيْهِ كَذِبُهُ ۖ وَإِنْ يَكُ صَادِقًا يُصِبْكُمْ بَعْضُ الَّذِي يَعِدُكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ كَذَّابٌ
28  And a believing man from the family of Pharaoh who concealed his faith said, “Do you kill a man [merely] because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah’ while he has brought you clear proofs from your Lord? And if he should be lying, then upon him is [the consequence of] his lie; but if he should be truthful, there will strike you some of what he promises you. Indeed, Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liar.

But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.

ENGLISH NAME: The Forgiver, The Believer.

CHAPTER NUMBER: 40

SURAH GHAFIR TOTAL VERSES: 85

SURAH GHAFIR TOTAL WORDS: 1,226

TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 665

TOTAL LETTERS: 5,108

REVELATION PERIOD:

Meccan, Approx. 614 – 617 AD.

MAIN CHARACTERS:

God, Angels Carrying God’s Throne, Disbelievers, Previous Generations, Moses, Haman, Pharaoh, Korah, A Believing Man In Pharaoh Court, Prophet Muhammad. 

SURAH GHAFIR MAIN TOPICS:

Disbelievers Attitude in This World and Situation in Hereafter, Past Nations/Generations More Powerful Than You, Moses Story, Mention of A Believing Man In Pharaoh Court, Pharaoh Orders Haman To Build A Tower To Ascend Sky, Dialogue In Hell Between Weak And Arrogant, Stages Of Human Creation.

SURAH GHAFIR KEY VERSES:

٢١  أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَآثَارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ وَاقٍ

21  Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those who were before them? They were greater than them in strength and in impression on the land, but Allah seized them for their sins. And they had not from Allah any protector.

٣٦  وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا هَامَانُ ابْنِ لِي صَرْحًا لَعَلِّي أَبْلُغُ الْأَسْبَابَ

36  And Pharaoh said, “O Haman, construct for me a tower that I might reach the ways –

٤٦  النَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَعَشِيًّا ۖ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُوا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ

46  The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], “Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.”

٤٧  وَإِذْ يَتَحَاجُّونَ فِي النَّارِ فَيَقُولُ الضُّعَفَاءُ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا لَكُمْ تَبَعًا فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُغْنُونَ عَنَّا نَصِيبًا مِنَ النَّارِ

47  And [mention] when they will argue within the Fire, and the weak will say to those who had been arrogant, “Indeed, we were [only] your followers, so will you relieve us of a share of the Fire?”

٦٠  وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

60  And your Lord says, “Call upon Me; I will respond to you.” Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible.

SUMMARY OF TOPICS

1-10(No One Disputes Concerning The Signs Of Allah Except Those Who Disbelieve, Angels Who Carry The Throne Of God And Those Around It Pray For The Believers), 11-14(Disbelievers Will Say Our Lord, You Made Us Lifeless Twice And Gave Us Life Twice, And We Have Confessed Our Sins, Is There Any Way To Go Out/Any Exit), 15(God Sent Spirit Of His Command To Who Ever He Wills), 18-19(Warn Them, God Knows The Traitor Of An Eye), 21(Old/Past Nations/ Generations More Powerful Than You), 23-26(Prophet Moses Was Sent With Clear Authority, Haman Pharaoh Korah, They Said, “Kill The Sons Of Those Who Have Believed Alongwith Them And Keep Their Women Alive ), 27(Moses Prayer, I Seek Refuge With Your & My Lord), 28-35(A Believing Man In Pharaoh Court/Family, His Speech In Favor Of Moses), 36-37( Pharaoh Said, “O Haman Build A Tower For Me To Ascend Sky, Believing Man Speech; This Worldly Life Is Only Temporary Enjoyment), 45-46(Allah Protected Moses From The Evils They Plotted, Pharaoh Exposed To Fire Morning And Evening), 47-51(Dialogue In Hell Between Weak And Arrogant, Allah’s Promise Of Help To Messengers And Believers), 55 (Ask Forgiveness Of Your Sin O Muhammad And Exalt God), 60(God Says, “Call Upon Me; I Will Respond To You), 61-69(God The Creator Of All Things, Stages Of Human Creation; Dust, Drop, Clot, Child, Maturity, Old, Death, God’s Command Be And It Is), 71-77( Deniers Will Have Chains In Neck, Boiling Water, Enter In Hell), 78-85(Allah Has Sent Many Messengers Before Muhammad, Signs Of God, Old Generations More Powerful Than You, No Benefit Of Faith Once They Saw God’s Punishment. It Is The Established Way Of God)

SURAH GHAFIR BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND:

This Surah has 85 verses divided into 9 Rukus/Sections. The revelation period of this Surah is also same as that of Surah Zumar almost 4-5 years after Muhammad’s proclamation of his prophethood and before the migration of Abyssinia took place.

There are two names of this Surah. Names are taken from Verse 3 and 28 where there is a mention of the word “Ghafir” and “Mumin” respectively. If we take the first name than it is a trait of God that he is Forgiver and the second name Mumin is taken from the mention of a believer in Pharaoh’s Court. There are seven Surahs 40-46 i.e Surah Mumin to Surah Ahqaf that begin with the word “Ha Mim” And these Surahs are also called “al-Hawamim”.  These letters are called Mystery Abbreviated Letters OR Hurrof Al Muqattat a brief introduction of which is already given in Quran Statistics & Facts.

This Surah reminds of God’s signs and of His favors and gives sights from the story of Moses and Pharaoh with life-changing lessons that what the people of Mecca trying to do with Muhammad same Pharaoh tried to do with Moses but despite his mighty powers utterly failed. The story of a believer in Pharaoh’s court is narrated to tell that those who wanted to remain neutral in the battle of truth and falsehood should rise and perform their duty. It gives a lesson that the factors that prevent people from raising their voice had also hindered the way of the Believer, but he had full faith in God and dismissed all threats. And Pharaoh was not able to do him any harm.

Recorded by Baghawi, Ibn Masud said, “When I reach the family of Ha Mim, it is like reaching a beautiful garden, so I take my time.”

It is narrated that The parable of the Quran is that of a man who sets out to find a place for his family to stay, and he comes to a place where there is evidence of rainfall. While he is walking about, admiring it, he suddenly comes upon beautiful gardens. He says, `I liked the first traces of rainfall, but this is far better.’ It was said to him, `The first place is like the Quran, and these beautiful gardens are like the splendor of family of Ha Mim concerning the rest of the Quran.”

Hazrat Abu Hurairah reported God’s Messenger PBUH said, “If anyone recites in the morning حم   to  إِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ    i.e first three verses of Surah Ghafir/Mumin and Aayatul Kursi, he will be guarded by them till the evening, and if anyone recites them in the evening he will be safeguarded by them till the morning.