NAME: الأحقاف, Al-Ahqaf.
Name taken from Verse 21 where there is a mention of the word “Ahqaf”.
٢١ وَاذْكُرْ أَخَا عَادٍ إِذْ أَنْذَرَ قَوْمَهُ بِالْأَحْقَافِ وَقَدْ خَلَتِ النُّذُرُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا اللَّهَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ
21 And mention, [O Muhammad], the brother of ‘Aad, when he warned his people in the [region of] al-Ahqaf – and warners had already passed on before him and after him – [saying], “Do not worship except Allah. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a terrible day.”
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: The Sand Dunes.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 46
SURAH AHQAF TOTAL VERSES: 35
SURAH AHQAF TOTAL WORDS: 645
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 417
TOTAL LETTERS: 2,667
Meccan, Approx. 620 – 622 AD.
God, False Deities, Prophet Muhammad, Moses, Parents, Ad, Hud, Jinns.
SURAH AHQAF MAIN TOPICS:
Creation in Truth, Quran Is Same Old Message Also Conforms The Revelation Of The Torah, Commandment To Treat Parents Kindly, Gestation And Weaning Total Maximum Time Period Given 2.5 Years, A Group Of Jinns Heard Quran And Became The Preachers To Their Nation.
SURAH AHQAF KEY VERSES:
١٥ وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَانًا ۖ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ كُرْهًا وَوَضَعَتْهُ كُرْهًا ۖ وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلَاثُونَ شَهْرًا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَبَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً قَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَصْلِحْ لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ إِنِّي تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَإِنِّي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
15 And We have enjoined upon man, to his parents, good treatment. His mother carried him with hardship and gave birth to him with hardship, and his gestation and weaning [period] is thirty months. [He grows] until, when he reaches maturity and reaches [the age of] forty years, he says, “My Lord, enable me to be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents and to work righteousness of which You will approve and make righteous for me my offspring. Indeed, I have repented to You, and indeed, I am of the Muslims.”
٢٩ وَإِذْ صَرَفْنَا إِلَيْكَ نَفَرًا مِنَ الْجِنِّ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقُرْآنَ فَلَمَّا حَضَرُوهُ قَالُوا أَنْصِتُوا ۖ فَلَمَّا قُضِيَ وَلَّوْا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِمْ مُنْذِرِينَ
29 And [mention, O Muhammad], when We directed to you a few of the jinn, listening to the Qur’an. And when they attended it, they said, “Listen quietly.” And when it was concluded, they went back to their people as warners.
٣٥ فَاصْبِرْ كَمَا صَبَرَ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ وَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلْ لَهُمْ ۚ كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ ۚ بَلَاغٌ ۚ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ
35 So be patient, [O Muhammad], as were those of determination among the messengers and do not be impatient for them. It will be – on the Day they see that which they are promised – as though they had not remained [in the world] except an hour of a day. [This is] notification. And will [any] be destroyed except the defiantly disobedient people?
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
1-3(Created All With Truth & For A Specified Term), 4-8(Those Beings People Invoke Besides Allah Has No Power), 9-14(Say O Muhammad I Am Not A New Messenger, This Is Same Old Message, I Have no Knowledge of Unseen, I Don’t Know Even About My Own Future, Quran Conforms The Revelation Of The Torah Given To The Moses), 15(Commandment To Treat Parents Kindly, Gestation And Weaning Total Maximum Time Period Given 2.5 Years), 21-26(Ad Story, In Region Of Ahqaf, Before Hud Other Warners Also Came In Them, Denied, Destroyed By Wind), 29-30(A Group Of Jinns Heard Quran And Became The Preachers To Their Nation), 32-35(God Is Able To Give Life To The Dead, He Is Over All Things Competent, So Be Patient, The Last Day People Will Think They Had Stayed In Earth Only An Hour Of A Day)
SURAH AHQAF BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND:
This Surah has 35 verses divided into 4 Rukus/Sections. This is a Meccan Surah, revelation period of this Surah is the later Meccan period of Prophet’s life after the proclamation of prophethood. Name taken from Verse 21 “وَاذْكُرْ أَخَا عَادٍ إِذْ أَنْذَرَ قَوْمَهُ بِالْأَحْقَافِ” where there is a mention of the word “أَحْقَافِ” which means Sand Dunes. As already discussed in previous summaries this Surah is the 7th and last one of the series of 7 Surahs that starts with the word “حم” These are Surah Ghafir, Fussilat, Shura, Zukhuruf, Dukhan, Jathiyah, and Ahqaf. The letters “حم” are called Mystery Abbreviated Letters OR Hurrof Al Muqattat. A brief introduction of which is already given in Quran Statistics & Facts.
The Surah gives warnings to the deniers and that when God’s punishment comes then no one can protect them. The last years of Muhammad’s PBUH life in Mecca were of high stress and grief. Severe persecution started and the tribe of Quraysh along with other tribes boycotted Banu Hashim and Prophet along with his family and followers besieged in the valley of “Shaib Abi Talib” they faced a three year long social and economic boycott so much so that sometimes they had to survive on leaves of tree and grass. This was the time when Prophet”s beloved Uncle Abu Talib who always protected him died cause of sufferings and hardships of boycott and the same year his wife Khadija who was the only source of comfort for him also passed away.
During this time boycott was lifted after three years, but after this, the persecution of Quraysh became more violent, so much that it became difficult for Prophet to step out of his house. The insult and torture continued, and Quraysh used to throw dust and garbage on Prophet openly in the streets. Thus Prophet decided to go to Taif almost a 100 Km from Mecca. He did not have anything to ride, therefore went on foot with a hope that even if they did not accept his message, they might help him to live peacefully and do his work from there. He reached Taif and stayed for a few days, met with the chiefs of the tribe, and told them about his mission. They all refused and ordered him to leave the city.
When he was leaving their slaves and children of the city followed him abused him and threw stones and pebbles, which wounded him so much that his shoes filled with blood. In pain and grief he took shelter of the wall of a garden outside the city and prayed to God: “O God, to You I complain of my weakness, little resource, and lowliness before men. O Most Merciful, You are the Lord of the weak, and You are my Lord. To whom will You confide me? To the one who will misuse me, or to an enemy to whom You have given power over me? If You are not angry with me, I care not. Your favor is wide for me. I take refuge in the light of Your countenance by which the darkness is illuminated, and the things of this world and the next are rightly ordered, lest Your anger descends upon me or Your wrath lights upon me. It is for You to be satisfied until You are well pleased. There is no power, and no might save yours.
Exhausted, tired and broken when he reached near Qarn al Manazil he perceived the sky as become full of clouds and he saw Angel Gabriel who called him saying that God has listened to your prayer and with me is the angel incharge of the mountains you may ask him as you please. Then the angel of mountains greeted Prophet and said if he like, he would overturn the mountains from all sides on the people of Taif. The Prophet replied, “No, but I expect that God will create from their seed those who will worship none but God, the One.”
After reaching Mecca Prophet knew that Meccans would Mock and mischief more after knowing what happened to him in Taif. It was that time when in the outskirts of Mecca, he was reciting the Quran, and a group of Jinn happened to pass by and listen to the Quran as mentioned in verse 29-32. Believed in it and returned to their folks to preach them the message. Thus God gave Prophet the glad tidings that although at the moment your people are not listening to your message there is other creation of God not only listening but spreading your message same as you have been trying to spread it among your folks.