NAME: البينة, Al-Bayyina.
Name taken from Verse 1 where there is a mention of the word ”Bayyina”.
١ لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ مُنْفَكِّينَ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ
1 Those who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture and the polytheists were not to be parted [from misbelief] until there came to them clear evidence –
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: The Clear Proof.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 98
SURAH BAYYINAH TOTAL VERSES: 8
SURAH BAYYINAH TOTAL WORDS: 94
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 70
TOTAL LETTERS: 404
Madni, Approx. 622 – 628 AD.
God, People of the Scripture, Polytheists, Messenger of God, Believers.
SURAH BAYYINAH MAIN TOPICS:
People Intentionally Divided Their Religion Even After Seeing Evidence, God’s Commandments Were Same Even For Previous Nations.
SURAH BAYYINAH KEY VERSES:
٤ وَمَا تَفَرَّقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ
4 Nor did those who were given the Scripture become divided until after there had come to them clear evidence.
٥ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ دِينُ الْقَيِّمَةِ
5 And they were not commanded except to worship Allah, [being] sincere to Him in religion, inclining to truth, and to establish prayer and to give zakah. And that is the correct religion.
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
1-4(Those Given Scripture Become Divided After Seeing Clear Evidence), 5(They Were Also Commanded For Prayer, Charity And Truth), 6-8(Tiding Of Punishment For All Such People Who Forsake Their Religion And Reward of Perpetual Residence For The Righteous)
SURAH BAYYINAH BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACKGROUND
This Surah has 8 verses. It takes its name from verse 1: “لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ مُنْفَكِّينَ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ” (Those who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture and the polytheists were not to be parted until there came to them clear evidence) where the word “البينة” meaning “The Clear Proof” appears. As for its place of revelation, there is a difference of opinion as some commentators of the Quran say that this Surah was revealed in Madina and some say in Mecca. Mostly it is mentioned as a Madani Surah.
This Surah narrates several things about the history of Religion. It tells that God’s Commandments were always the same, and people intentionally divided their Religion even after seeing the evidence. It also responds to why it was necessary to send Muhammad with a new revelation since all of humanity had gone wrong and distorted the religion. It also narrates the different outcomes of those who follow the right path and those who turn away from the truth.
Ahmad bin Hanbal, recorded from Anas bin Malik and Bukhari and Muslim narrated it from Shubah that the Prophet of God PBUH said to Ubayy bin Kab,
إِنَّ اللهَ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ أَقْرَأَ عَلَيْكَ لَمۡ يَكُنِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ
Indeed, God has commanded me to recite to you (Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture.) Ubayy said, “He (God) mentioned me by name to you” The Prophet replied, نَعَم (Yes.) So he (Ubayy) cried.