NAME: الكهف, Al-Kahf.
Name taken from Verse 9 where there is a mention of “Al-Kahf”. Which refers to the Story of the People of the Cave.
٩ أَمْ حَسِبْتَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْكَهْفِ وَالرَّقِيمِ كَانُوا مِنْ آيَاتِنَا عَجَبًا
9 Or have you thought that the companions of the cave and the inscription were, among Our signs, a wonder?
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: The Cave.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 18
SURAH KAHF TOTAL VERSES: 110
SURAH KAHF TOTAL WORDS: 1,583
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 917
TOTAL LETTERS: 6,552
Meccan, Approx. 617 – 619 AD.
God, Muhammad, Companions Of Cave, Their Dog, Two Men and their Garden, Adam, Angels, Satan/Devil, Moses, Moses Servant, Slave of God(Khidr), Zulqurnain, Gog Magog.
SURAH KAHF MAIN TOPICS:
Story Of Companions Of Cave, Their Number dispute, They Remained In Their Cave for 309 Years, Story Of two Men: Believer and Nonbeliever: Gardens & Boosting, Moses Journey with a Slave of God with special knowledge and his three strange Acts, Story Of Zulqurnain and His Three Journeys.
SURAH KAHF KEY VERSES:
٢٣ وَلَا تَقُولَنَّ لِشَيْءٍ إِنِّي فَاعِلٌ ذَٰلِكَ غَدًا
23 And never say of anything, “Indeed, I will do that tomorrow,”
٢٤ إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاذْكُرْ رَبَّكَ إِذَا نَسِيتَ وَقُلْ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَهْدِيَنِ رَبِّي لِأَقْرَبَ مِنْ هَٰذَا رَشَدًا
24 Except [when adding], “If Allah wills.” And remember your Lord when you forget [it] and say, “Perhaps my Lord will guide me to what is nearer than this to right conduct.”
٤٦ الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًا
46 Wealth and children are [but] adornment of the worldly life. But the enduring good deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for [one’s] hope.
٩٧ فَمَا اسْطَاعُوا أَنْ يَظْهَرُوهُ وَمَا اسْتَطَاعُوا لَهُ نَقْبًا
97 So Gog and Magog were unable to pass over it, nor were they able [to effect] in it any penetration.
٩٨ قَالَ هَٰذَا رَحْمَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّي ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي جَعَلَهُ دَكَّاءَ ۖ وَكَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي حَقًّا
98 [Dhul-Qarnayn] said, “This is a mercy from my Lord; but when the promise of my Lord comes, He will make it level, and ever is the promise of my Lord true.”
٩٩ وَتَرَكْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَمُوجُ فِي بَعْضٍ ۖ وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَجَمَعْنَاهُمْ جَمْعًا
99 And We will leave them that day surging over each other, and [then] the Horn will be blown, and We will assemble them in [one] assembly.
١٠٩ قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ الْبَحْرُ مِدَادًا لِكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّي لَنَفِدَ الْبَحْرُ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْفَدَ كَلِمَاتُ رَبِّي وَلَوْ جِئْنَا بِمِثْلِهِ مَدَدًا
109 Say, “If the sea were ink for [writing] the words of my Lord, the sea would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even if We brought the like of it as a supplement.”
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
1-2(Quran: a Plain, Easy Book), 3-6(Warning to Those Who Say That God Has Taken a Son, Muhammad Perhaps You Would Kill Yourself Through Grief Over Those Who Do Not Believe), 9(Story of Companions of Cave & Raqeem/Inscription), 11-12(God Sealed Up Their Hearing I.E Sleep, Awakened by God After Hundreds of Years), 13-16(They Were Young Men Who Declared the Truth About the Oneness of God, When Feared Persecution They Seek Refuge in the Cave), 17(God Put Them in a State of Sleep: Sun Turn Right Left; You Would See The Sun When It Rose, Inclining Away From Their Cave on the Right, and When It Set, Passing Away From Them on the Left), 18(and You Would Think Them Awake, While They Were Asleep.), 19(When They Awakened, Questioned Themselves How Long We Remained Here, Bring Food With Silver Coin), 22(Guess of Their Number Some Say Three and Fourth Is Their Dog, Five and Sixth Their Dog, 7 and 8Th Was Dog, Don’t Dispute on This Trivial Issue of Their Number. Their Identity Was Only Disclosed To Resolve the Disputed Issue of Life After Death), 23-24(Warning tp Prophet and Believers: Whenever You Promise To Do Something in the Future, Always Say if God Wills), 25(They Remained in Their Cave for Three Hundred Years Exceeded by Nine), 32-43( Story of Two Men: Believer and Nonbeliever: Gardens & Boosting: Disbeliever Says “I Do Not Think That This Will Ever Perish” and “I Do Not Think the Hour Will Occur. And Even if I Should Be Brought Back to my Lord, I Will Surely Find Better Than This”), 47-49( Hashr/Last Day, All of You Will Come to Us Just as We Created You the First Time, All Your Deeds Are in a Book, Book That Leaves Nothing Small or Great), 50(Adam, Angels, Satan/Devil Refusal Because He Was From Jinns), 60-82( Moses Story: Point of 2 Rivers Verse60, Fish Lost Verse63, Then Moses Met One of God’s Slave Whom God Have Given Some Special Knowledge Verse65-66, He Made a Hole in a Ship With Passengers Verse71, Slew A Lad Verse74, Erected a Wall in a City Where People Didn’t Entertain Them Verse77), 83(Story of Zulqurnain), 86(He Reached at the Setting Place of Sun), 90(Second Journey of Zulqurnain: Rising Place of Sun), 92-94( Third Journey, in Between Walls, Gog Magog), 96(Wall Building),98-100(Release Of Gog Magog at the Time of Last Hour), 109(Words of God Are Countless, Even if Sea Become Ink Can’t Write the Words Of God), 110(Muhammad Is but a Human Like You)
SURAH KAHF BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND
This Surah has 110 verses divided into 12 Rukus/Sections. This Surah was revealed in Mecca almost five years before Prophet Muhammad’s migration to Yathrib (Madina). This was the time when the opposition of Meccans turned from verbal accusations and abuse to physical and socio-economic torture and bans. This is the time when many Muslims migrated to nearby country of Abasinya and Prophet himself along with his close family members were seized in “Shaib Abi Talib.”
It is narrated in traditions that this Surah was revealed as a reply to a question which Meccans asked Prophet Muhammad on the advice of Jews regarding “Sleepers of the Cave” “Story of Khidr” and “Zulqurnain” as these legends were there in the books of Israelites, but Arabs had no previous knowledge of them. They asked it as a test to make the prophet embarrassed of his ignorance. But not only God revealed him the true story of all these but also simultaneously comforted the believers and warn the disbelievers that God is all powerful to change the situation and that God knows the unseen and reality is hidden from you.
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded that: “A man recited Surah Kahf and there was an animal in the house which began acting in a nervous manner. He watched, and saw a cloud overhead. He decsribed this to the Prophet , who said:
اقْرَأْ فُلَانُ، فَإِنَّهَا السَّكِينَةُ تَنْزِلُ عِنْدَ الْقُرْآنِ أَوْ تَنَزَّلَتْ لِلْقُرْآن
Keep on reciting so and so, for this is the tranquility which descends when one reads Quran or because of reading Quran.
The Prophet said:
مَنْ قَرَأَ سُورَةَ الْكَهْفِ كَمَا نَزَلَتْ، كَانَتْ لَهُ نُورًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة
Whoever recites Surat Kahf as it was revealed, it will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection.