Quran Miracle: It Mentions One God Without Any Partner
Oneness Of God: Universal Application
Quran introduces God as One without any partners. This totally matches with the conformity and consistency required for the operation and survival of a universe as we live in. This trait is a must must for the uniformity of the physical laws and continuity of complex cosmological processes and the existence of living beings. If there were many gods, then at some point, each God would try to extend influence on the other. Each God would strive to claim the Throne at some point, and as a result confusion, disorder and chaos will fall on the creation. There would be disputes on many issues. There would be different laws of physics. There would be no permanence & stability in the universe. Same as in Egyptian, Hindu and Greek mythology, there is mention of various wars between Titans, gods and their offsprings.
Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any deity. [If there had been], then each deity would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe. (Surah Muminun 23:91)
The Nature Of God As Per Quran
In the Quran, the below eight verses give a detailed explanation of the nature of God.
١ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
٢ اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ
٣ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
٤ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
Say: “He is Allah, the One and Unique;
Allah the Eternal, Self Sufficient, the Uncaused Cause of All Beings.
He begets not, and neither is He begotten;
and there is nothing that could be compared with Him. (Surah Ikhlas)
Whatever is in the heavens and earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
His is the dominion of the heavens and earth. He gives life and causes death, and He is over all things competent.
He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate, and He is, of all things, Knowing.
It is He who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth and what emerges from it and what descends from the heaven and what ascends therein; and He is with you wherever you are. And Allah is All Seer of what you do. (Surah Hadid 57:1-4)
Quranic Depiction Of God: Philosophically, Logically & Scientifically Correct
You can see that this definition of God that the Quran tells us is in precise agreement with the different philosophical arguments I discussed in detail in previous articles in the Theology section. There we concluded that all beings are contingent i.e. subject to chance and dependent, meaning that it is possible for them not to exist. If everything can possibly not exist, there must have been a time when nothing existed. As things exist now, there must exist a being with necessary existence, regarded as God. In other words, if everything could die, then, given enough time, everything would eventually die.
But in that case, nothing could start up again. We would have universal death. For a being that has ceased to exist, cannot cause itself or anything else, to begin to exist again. But because this universal death has not happened and things do exist, there must be a being that is eternal. If the universe has an explanation of its existence, then that explanation is an external transcendent personal cause. Because the cause of the universe must be greater than the universe itself. Think of the universe all of space and time, so the cause of the universe must be beyond space and time. Therefore it cannot be physical or material. Now there are only two kinds of things that could possibly fit that description, either an abstract object or else an intelligent being. But abstract objects can’t cause anything so it must be an intelligent being i.e God.
The whole universe is a vast, interlocking chain of things that come into existence. We would not be here without billions of causes from the Big Bang, through the forming of stars and galaxies, and the evolution of the life on planet earth, to the marriages of our ancestors.
To understand more consider you need a DVD for your DVD Player. You ask your friend whether he has it. He says no, he has to get it from his father. What if his father says he has to get it from his friend, who in turn says that he has to get it from his son, and the process goes on until infinity. No one actually has the DVD. In that case, you will never get it. However long or short the chain of borrowers may be, you will get it only if someone actually has it and does not have to borrow it. The existence of all creation is like this. If there is no first cause i.e no being who has existence by his own nature, and does not have to borrow it from someone else, then this mere existence of all that exist can never be passed down the chain to others, and no one will ever get it.
Say, “If there had been with Him [other] gods, as they say, then they [each] would have sought a way to the Owner of the Throne.” (Surah Isra 17:42)
Quran speaks about not to associate partners with God. These partners are not only idols as perceived by the majority of people. Idols are one among them. A true revelation of God is always universal and valid for any age. So it changes its sense with the changing time as now it has many more meanings in it. As compared to a simple society, today’s society is much more complex, and associating partners with God means considering anyone else as a being giving you your provisions, health, life, security and anything you can imagine. Religion and scriptures came to you to provide you liberty from many gods, idols or humans, to break the chains, to give you freedom from superstition so that all your fears come to an end. So that you need not to go to different places, different doors for your problems, provisions and for your needs.
Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe. (Surah Anbiya 21:22)
Quran Miracle: Emphasis On Not Associating Partners With God Is Rationally & Logically Correct
Associating partners with God is much more an evil than not believing in any god. As not believing is not so dangerous as believing in the wrong deity. I give you an example, consider you arrive in a country or a city, and you are unaware of the ruler of that region, and about his policies, then chances are you can make a few mistakes, but soon you would become aware of the law and the ruler. But in case you get trapped by some wrong people, and if they manage to tell you a totally different version of rules, laws and policies, chances are you would make quite serious mistakes or even some unlawful activity in that country which may end up to some serious crime some severe punishment.
Verily, Allah forgives not the sin of setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgiveth whom He pleaseth other sins than this. And whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, has indeed strayed far from the path. (Surah Nisa 4:116)
DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE IMPORTANT WORDS USED IS GIVEN BELOW
The root word for Shirk (ش ر ك) occurs 168 times in the Quran, in eight derived forms.
(ش ر ك): “shirk” شرك A sharing, participation, co-partnership; setting up or associating false gods with the One God; belief in the plurality of gods; disbelief; hypocrisy. شرك A share. شريك A sharer, partner; a co-partner or equal with another; an associate or a colleague of another.
The root (أ ل ه) occurs 2851 times in the Quran, in three derived forms: 147 times as the noun “ilah” (إِلَٰه), five times as (ٱللَّهُمَّ) And 2699 times as the proper noun Allah (ٱللَّه)
(أ ل ه): To adore, worship, deify anyone, call anyone worth of worship. Ilâh إِلَٰه An object of worship & adoration God; Deity; Worthy of worship. Allah الله; the name of the Supreme Being Who is the sole possessor of all perfect attributes and is free from all defects. In Arabic, this word is never used for any other being or thing. No other language has a distinctive name for the Supreme Being. The names found in other languages are attributive or descriptive always used in the singular. The word Allah is derived from no other word, nor any other word is derived from it. Allahuma َاللّهُم is an expression used in prayer, meaning O God.