Quran On Atoms And Subatomic Particles

Evolution Of Atomic Theory

Animation Showing Dissection Of Matter

Although the concept that things are made of small particles is quite old. The first person who gave the idea of the smallest particle was Democritus in 460 BC. He says cut anything until get very small that you cannot cut more. That he called “atomos” In Greek “a” means “Not” and “tomos” means “Cut” i.e indivisible that you cannot cut more. But the concept that things are made of particles so small that they are invisible from us is not very old.  In 1897 J.J.Thomson discovered electron then in 1911 Ernest Rutherford presented the idea of nucleus &

Basic Model Of atom
electron and after that Neils Bohr gave the model of the atom with a nucleus inside and electron in different orbits. And in 1970 we found that proton and neutron are also not basic fundamental particles but made up of quarks. But whatever latest theories we take like Quantum field theory or The String theory one thing is common that everything we see is composed of things that we cannot see that is they are very very small.

How Small Is An Atom?

Electrons Orbiting around neucleus

Atom is so small that in only one human cell which you cannot see without a microscope there are almost 100 trillion atoms. If you put 500,000 atoms in a row shoulder to shoulder than they only be as wide as the thickness of a human hair. To understand it more if you increase the size of the nucleus to that of a coin, the edge of the atom would be at a distance of 2-3 kilometer.

Nucleus of an atom

So we can clearly see that 200 years ago the human knowledge was that atom is the smallest particle and it is not divisible. Now look almost 1400 years ago Quran not only mentioned about Atoms but also things and particles that are smaller than it.

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَا تَأْتِينَا السَّاعَةُ ۖ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ ۖ لَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ مِثْقَالُ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا أَصْغَرُ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرُ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ

But those who disbelieve say, “The Hour will not come to us.” Say, “Yes, by my Lord, it will surely come to you. [Allah is] the Knower of the unseen.” Not absent from Him is an atom’s weight within the heavens or within the earth or [what is] smaller than that or greater, except that it is in a clear register. Surah Saba 34:3

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِنْ قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْ رَبِّكَ مِنْ مِثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ

And you are not in any matter or recite any of the Qur’an and you do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom’s weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register. Surah Yunus 10:61

٧ فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

٨ وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it,

And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it.  Surah Zilzal 99:7-8

 إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَىٰ ۖ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ

Indeed, Allah is the cleaver of grain and date seeds. He brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living. That is Allah; so how are you deluded?  Surah Anam 6:95

 أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۚ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who claim sanctity for themselves? Nay-but Allah Doth sanctify whom He pleaseth. But never will they fail to receive justice in the least little thing. Surah Nisa 4:49

 وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا

But whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, and is a believer—those will enter Paradise, and will not be wronged a whit. Surah Nisa 4:124

Building Blocks Of This Universe

Animation of a molecule

There are many miracles in words used here in these verses. As we know that in 21st century modern science also pointing us to new theories about the fundamental building blocks of this universe as I clearly explained in my article “Matter is an Illusion” where it is mentioned that matter (particles) is nothing but made up of vortices of energy that are constantly spinning and vibrating, each one radiating its own unique energy signature. Or smallest particles are but small tiny strings as in String theory.

Quran Miracle In The Use of 5 Different Words For Atoms & Subatomic Particles

Animation Of Atom's structure

Now look at these verses, and you can see that there are few words used for smallest particles other than “ذَرَّةٍ” which are “الْحَبِّ”, “النَّوَىٰ” , “فَتِيلًا” , And ‘نَقِيرًا”. The meanings of which are such that it contains all the meanings for the coming generations. That is for the previous human generations these words were giving a sense as per their time, and for us again, these words have the capacity that they give new meaning as per our modern understanding of science. This is what should be a characteristic of a divine revelation that it should be universal, valid for all ages. Arabic is a wonderful and appropriate language for a divine revelation. Below are given the meanings as was understood before and the more appropriate meanings were ignored because people were not able to understand and connect those meanings with the verse. Now just look that the actual meanings of these words which I mark as (New) are miraculous as how they are expressing the modern scientific facts and the miraculous wisdom and knowledge contained in the Holy Quran.

String Loop as in string theory
Now, فَتِيلًا can be taken as A twisted rope as in string theory, النَّوَىٰ as the nucleus of an atom which also gives another Miracle as in 6:95 it is mentioned that “النَّوَىٰ” can be cleaved and split which exactly happened recently when we discovered the nuclear energy. Lastly, نَقِيرًا are vibrations of a rope OR vortices of energy as within string theory or as I mentioned in detail in my article “Quantum Field Theory.”

A Single straight string

فَتِيلًا: a thread inside a date seed (Old) / A twisted rope (New) 

النَّوَىٰ: date seeds (Old) / Nucleus نواة”. Plural nuclei is نَّوَىٰ” (New)

String vibrating as in string theory

الْحَبِّ: grain (Old) / Nut, Whit, smallest thing (New)

نَقِيرًا: the speck on a date seed (Old) / Sound OR Vibrations of a Rope (New) 

Another Miracle: Atomic Weight

Atom proton neutron and electron

Another Miracle is that in the above verses whenever God mentioned the smallest particle “ذَرَّةٍ” ..the word “مِثْقَالَ” is also mentioned before that which means “Weight.”  Which is a miracle that now in modern science we measure small particle and elements by their “Atomic Weights” and not by their Size or anything else.



The 27th word of verse 10:61 is an indefinite feminine noun and is in the genitive case مجرور. The noun’s root is (ذ ر ر). This occurs 38 times in the Quran, in three derived forms.

N – genitive feminine indefinite noun اسم مجرور

(ذ ر ر): “Zaratin” In sense of spread put forth as in “God spread His servants upon the earth” & “he ground/put forth the plant”/ “Zuriat” Children or offspring of a man, male or female; little ones or young ones; descendants; progenitors or ancestors/ Basically the little ones: so all smallest things particles constituting this universe are Zara i.e atoms or smaller than that & Miracle as discussed above this word also has a sense of spread, sprinkle, put forth so all meanings are there in atoms; as particles that are spread everywhere etc.


The fourteenth word of verse 4:49 is an indefinite masculine noun and is in the accusative case منصوب. The noun’s root is (ف ت ل). This root occurs three times in the Quran as the noun fatīl (فَتِيل).

N – accusative masculine indefinite noun اسم منصوب

(ف ت ل): A twisted rope; a small thread in the cleft of a date-stone; fine thread or dirt formed between two fingers or the palms of two hands when they are rubbed together; hence a thing of no worth or significance.


The fifth word of verse 6:95 is divided into two morphological segments. A conjunction and noun. The prefixed conjunction wa is usually translated as “and”. The noun is masculine and is in the genitive case مجرور. The noun’s root is (ن و ي). This root occurs only once in the Quran, as the noun nawā (نَّوَىٰ)

CONJ – prefixed conjunction wa (and)  (الواو عاطفة)

N – genitive masculine noun       (اسم مجرور)

(ن و ي): To intend. propose, design, resolve scheme, aim, Date-stone, Thing or place that is object of an action or a journey. نواة: kernel ; pip ; pit ; seed ; stone, core ; nucleus


The fourth word of verse 6:95 is a masculine noun and is in the genitive case مجرور. The noun’s root is (ح ب ب). This root occurs 95 times in the Quran, in nine derived forms.

N – genitive masculine noun اسم مجرور

(ح ب ب): Love/Prefer/Love; affection; natural disposition or inclination towards a thing that pleases/ “Hub”, “Habeeb”, “Mohabat”/ “Hab” “Habbat” Hearts Core, Hearts blood, Corn; grain; seed; nut; pill; stone of grapes etc.


The sixteenth word of verse 4:124 is an indefinite masculine noun and is in the accusative case منصوب. The noun’s root is (ن ق ر). This root occurs four times in the Quran, in three derived forms.

N – accusative masculine indefinite noun اسم منصوب

(ن ق ر): Wordنقر : Grain, منقار i.e. kind of pick axe; vibrations of a string, he made a snapping with his thumb and middle finger and made a sound with them, To strike, revile, engrave, play (lute), hallow out, sound, blow (bugle), pierce. Nuqira Was blown, sounded, etc. Naqîr نقیر : Split in a date-stone, hence paltry or worthless.Grove he made a light sound to put in motion the beast or horse by making his tongue adhere to his palate and then opening or suddenly drawing it away; he bored or perforated or made hole into a thing with a منقار (pick). ناقور: Nâqûr Trumpet. A horn in which one blows or the angel shall blow on the Day of Resurrection.


The 26th word of verse 10:61 is a masculine noun and is in the genitive case مجرور. The noun’s root is (ث ق ل). This root occurs 28 times in the Quran, in eight derived forms.

N – genitive masculine noun اسم مجرور

(ث ق ل): It (a thing) was or became heavy, weighty or ponderous/ “Saqul” it was or became heavy or weighty as meaning onerous, oppressive orgrievous/ also means: (1)He was or became heavy, slow, lazy, wanting in activity, agility or intelligence/ “Saqal” Household goods; (2) luggage of traveller; (3)anything held in high estimation, in much demand and preserved with care/ Treasures or burden of earth 99:2/ “Musqalat” woman whose pregnancy has become apparent/ “Misqal” Weight; a thing with which one weighs; a certain weight such as dirhem or a part thereof; a certain coin.


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