NAME: التوبة, البراءة, At-Tawba, Al-Bara’at.
This Surah has two names. Al Baraat taken from verse#1 which means ultimatum of release from obligation of treatise. The second name is Al Tawba which mean Repentance as discussed in verse 102 and 108.
١ بَرَاءَةٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
1 [This is a declaration of] disassociation, from Allah and His Messenger, to those with whom you had made a treaty among the polytheists.
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: Repentance, The Absolution.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 9
SURAH TAWBAH TOTAL VERSES: 129
SURAH TAWBAH TOTAL WORDS: 2,505
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 1,126
TOTAL LETTERS: 11,115
Medinan, Approx. 630 – 631 AD.
God, Prophet Muhammad, Polytheists, Believers, People Of The Book, Christian Monks, Hypocrites, Those companions who avoid going in Battle of Tabuk.
SURAH TAWBAH MAIN TOPICS:
Disassociation From Obligations/Treatise With Polytheists, Order for Qital/Killing, Idolaters Cannot Enter Or maintain the mosques of Allah, Mention of Battle Of Huneyn, Mention of Events related to Battle Of Tabuk, Do not Pray On Hypocrites When They Die, Mention of Masjid E Zarar, Mosque For Causing Harm, Allah Has Bought Lives Of Believers Against Heaven, Mention Of 3 Pending cases Of Companions of prophet, Forgiveness Granted.
SURAH TAWBAH KEY VERSES:
١٧ مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَنْ يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ بِالْكُفْرِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ
17 It is not for the polytheists to maintain the mosques of Allah [while] witnessing against themselves with disbelief. [For] those, their deeds have become worthless, and in the Fire they will abide eternally.
٣٢ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَيَأْبَى اللَّهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يُتِمَّ نُورَهُ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ
32 They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah refuses except to perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it.
٨٠ اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لَا تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِنْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ
80 Ask forgiveness for them, [O Muhammad], or do not ask forgiveness for them. If you should ask forgiveness for them seventy times – never will Allah forgive them. That is because they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people.
٨٤ وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ مَاتَ أَبَدًا وَلَا تَقُمْ عَلَىٰ قَبْرِهِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ
84 And do not pray [the funeral prayer, O Muhammad], over any of them who has died – ever – or stand at his grave. Indeed, they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger and died while they were defiantly disobedient.
١٠٧ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا وَكُفْرًا وَتَفْرِيقًا بَيْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَإِرْصَادًا لِمَنْ حَارَبَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ وَلَيَحْلِفُنَّ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ
107 And [there are] those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm and disbelief and division among the believers and as a station for whoever had warred against Allah and His Messenger before. And they will surely swear, “We intended only the best.” And Allah testifies that indeed they are liars.
١١١ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
111 Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment.
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
1-3(Barat/Disassociation From Obligations With Kafirs/Polytheists, 4 Months Given, Do Tauba/Repentance Otherwise Tidings of a Painful Punishment), 4(Excluding Those With Treaty & Have Not Done Anything Against You), 5(After Sacred Months Passed Slay Them but if They Repent, Establish Prayer, and Give Zakat, Let Them Go), 6(if any of Them Seeks Your Protection, Then Grant Him Protection), 7-14(How Can There Be a Treaty an Obligation on Allah and his Prophet if Not on Them, as if They Gain Dominance Over You, They Do Not Observe Concerning You any Pact of Kinship or Covenant), 17(Idolaters Cannot Enter or Maintain the Mosques of Allah), 19-22(Service and Giving Water to Pilgrims Is Not Equal to True Belief in God, the Last Day, and Jihad), 23-24(Even if Father Brother Disbelieve No Friendship Association With Them), 25-26(Mention of Battle Of Huneyn, Affliction on Believers, Allah Helped and Sent Down Invisible Hosts), 28(Idolaters Forbidden To Enter Kaaba), 29(Fight With People Of The Book Until They Give Jazia/War Tax), 30(Jews Say Ezra S/O God, Christians Say Jesus S/O God), 32(They Want To Extinguish the Light of Allah W