NAME: لقمان, Luqman.
Name taken from Verse 12-19 where there is a mention of a wise slave of God Luqman.
١٢ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا لُقْمَانَ الْحِكْمَةَ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِلَّهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ
12 And We had certainly given Luqman wisdom [and said], “Be grateful to Allah.” And whoever is grateful is grateful for [the benefit of] himself. And whoever denies [His favor] – then indeed, Allah is Free of need and Praiseworthy.
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: Luqman.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 31
SURAH LUQMAN TOTAL VERSES: 34
SURAH LUQMAN TOTAL WORDS: 550
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 343
TOTAL LETTERS: 2,171
Meccan, Approx. 615 – 617 AD.
God, Luqman, Luqman’s son.
SURAH LUQMAN MAIN TOPICS:
Quran- A Wise Book, Heavens without Pillars, Luqman Story and His Advice To His Son, Instructions about Parents, Allah Has Made Subject Everything To Humankind, Knowledge Of 6 Six Things Is With Allah.
SURAH LUQMAN KEY VERSES:
١٤ وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَىٰ وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ
14 And We have enjoined upon man [care] for his parents. His mother carried him, [increasing her] in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning is in two years. Be grateful to Me and to your parents; to Me is the [final] destination.
١٥ وَإِنْ جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا ۖ وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا ۖ وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
15 But if they endeavor to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me will be your return, and I will inform you about what you used to do.
١٩ وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِنْ صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنْكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ
19 And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.”
٢٧ وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلَامٌ وَالْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍ مَا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَاتُ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
27 And if whatever trees upon the earth were pens and the sea [was ink], replenished thereafter by seven [more] seas, the words of Allah would not be exhausted. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
٣٤ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْأَرْحَامِ ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ مَاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًا ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
34 Indeed, Allah [alone] has knowledge of the Hour and sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no soul perceives what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul perceives in what land it will die. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
31: 1-7(These Are Verses Of The Wise Book, And of the people is he who buys the amusement of speech to mislead others), 8-9( For Righteous are the Gardens Of Pleasure), 10(God Created Heavens Without Pillars, Put On Earth Firmly Set Mountains, Lest It Should Shift With You), 12-13(Luqman Story, Advice To His Son), 14(God enjoined upon man [care] for his parents, His mother carried him, [increasing her] in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning is in two years, Don’t Obey Your Parents If They Ask For Shirk/Associating Partners With God), 16-19(Luqman Advises To His Son, Deed Weight Of A Mustard Seed Allah Will Bring It Forth, Do Not Walk Through The Earth Exultantly, Lower Your Voice; Indeed, The Most Disagreeable Of Sounds Is The Voice Of Donkeys), 20(Allah Has Made Subject To Humankind Whatever Is In The Heavens And Whatever Is In The Earth ), 27(All Trees & Seas Will Exhaust But Allah Words Will Not Finish), 28(Resurrection Of One Or Billions Is SameFor God), 34(Knowledge Of 6 Six Things Is With Allah)
SURAH LUQMAN BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND:
This Surah has 34 verses divided into 4 Rukus/Sections. This Surah was revealed in Mecca in an early period of Muhammad’s declaration of his prophethood and before the migration to Abyssinia took place, however persecution of early followers of Muhammad had already started. Its revelation period looks like same as that of Surah Ankabut as this Surah also shows that when it revealed, there were people who were convincing their youth not to believe in Muhammad and obey their Parents as this is what all religions command. But this Surah almost similarly answers this thing in verse 14-15 just as it was mentioned in Surah Ankabut verse 8 that “if your parents strive to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me will be your return, and I will inform you about what you used to do”.
Like other Surahs revealed in Mecca, we find the emphasis on monotheism or the Oneness of God. It questions the human intellect to ponder on the creation around them and think how God created all this and subjected all this to Mankind. It refutes the shirk and association of any being with God in the process of creation or in running His kingdom. It also says that the fundamental truths in all revealed religions are identical, the message with which Muhammad came is the same which was sent to previous nations.