NAME: ص, داوود, Sad, Dawood.
Two names. Names taken from Verse 1 and 17 where there is a mention of Arabic Alphabet “Sad” and of Prophet “Dawood” respectively.
١ ص ۚ وَالْقُرْآنِ ذِي الذِّكْرِ
1 Sad. By the Qur’an containing reminder.
١٧ اصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
17 Be patient over what they say and remember Our servant, David, the possessor of strength; indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah].
But It does not mean that this name is the actual topic discussed in the whole Surah. It is just a reference and mark/symbol to distinguish this Surah from others as is with most other Surahs of Quran. While there are diversified topics discussed in these Surahs.
ENGLISH NAME: Sad, David.
CHAPTER NUMBER: 38
SURAH SAD TOTAL VERSES: 88
SURAH SAD TOTAL WORDS: 735
TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 478
TOTAL LETTERS: 3,065
Meccan, Approx. 615 – 618 AD.
God, Prophet Muhammad, David/Dawood, Two Litigants, Solomon, Jasad/Body, Satan/Devils, Ayyub/Job, Prophet Ibrahim, Isaac, Jacob, Ishmael, Elisha, Zulkifl, Hurst’s/Hoors, People Of Hell, Angles, Adam, Iblis.
SURAH SAD MAIN TOPICS:
David/Dawood Story Miracles Given and Two Litigants and their Sheep, Solomon Story His Trial and His Famous Prayer , Miracles Given to Solomon, Ayyub/Job Story, Adam Creation Angels Prostration Iblis/Devil Refusal.
SURAH SAD KEY VERSES:
٣ إِنَّ هَٰذَا أَخِي لَهُ تِسْعٌ وَتِسْعُونَ نَعْجَةً وَلِيَ نَعْجَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَقَالَ أَكْفِلْنِيهَا وَعَزَّنِي فِي الْخِطَابِ
23 Indeed this, my brother, has ninety-nine ewes, and I have one ewe; so he said, ‘Entrust her to me,’ and he overpowered me in speech.”
٢٤ قَالَ لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلَىٰ نِعَاجِهِ ۖ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ الْخُلَطَاءِ لَيَبْغِي بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَقَلِيلٌ مَا هُمْ ۗ وَظَنَّ دَاوُودُ أَنَّمَا فَتَنَّاهُ فَاسْتَغْفَرَ رَبَّهُ وَخَرَّ رَاكِعًا وَأَنَابَ ۩
24 [David] said, “He has certainly wronged you in demanding your ewe [in addition] to his ewes. And indeed, many associates oppress one another, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds – and few are they.” And David became certain that We had tried him, and he asked forgiveness of his Lord and fell down bowing [in prostration] and turned in repentance [to Allah].
٣١ إِذْ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْعَشِيِّ الصَّافِنَاتُ الْجِيَادُ
31 [Mention] when there were exhibited before him in the afternoon the poised [standing] racehorses.
٣٢ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَحْبَبْتُ حُبَّ الْخَيْرِ عَنْ ذِكْرِ رَبِّي حَتَّىٰ تَوَارَتْ بِالْحِجَابِ
32 And he said, “Indeed, I gave preference to the love of good [things] over the remembrance of my Lord until the sun disappeared into the curtain [of darkness].”
٣٣ رُدُّوهَا عَلَيَّ ۖ فَطَفِقَ مَسْحًا بِالسُّوقِ وَالْأَعْنَاقِ
33 [He said], “Return them to me,” and set about striking [their] legs and necks.
٣٤ وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا سُلَيْمَانَ وَأَلْقَيْنَا عَلَىٰ كُرْسِيِّهِ جَسَدًا ثُمَّ أَنَابَ
34 And We certainly tried Solomon and placed on his throne a body; then he returned.
٤٤ وَخُذْ بِيَدِكَ ضِغْثًا فَاضْرِبْ بِهِ وَلَا تَحْنَثْ ۗ إِنَّا وَجَدْنَاهُ صَابِرًا ۚ نِعْمَ الْعَبْدُ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
44 [We said], “And take in your hand a bunch [of grass] and strike with it and do not break your oath.” Indeed, We found him patient, an excellent servant. Indeed, he was one repeatedly turning back [to Allah].
٧٥ قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ
75 [Allah] said, “O Iblees, what prevented you from prostrating to that which I created with My hands? Were you arrogant [then], or were you [already] among the haughty?”
٧٦ قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ
76 He said, “I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay.”
SUMMARY OF TOPICS
1-6( By The Qur’an Containing Reminder, They Wonder That There Has Come To Them A Warner From Among Themselves, And They Wonder That He Has Made Only One God, Let’s Go, Don’t Listen To Him), 17-20(Remember David, God Subdued Hills To Hymn With Him, And Birds), 21-26(David; The Story Of Two Litigants, One Has Ninety-Nine Sheep And The Other Has A Single Sheep, From This David Realized His Own Mistake And Asked Forgiveness), 30-33(Solomon Inspection Of Steeds), 34-35(Solomon Trial, God Put A Body On His Throne, Solomon Prayer; My Lord, Forgive Me And Grant Me A Kingdom Such As Shall Not Belong To Anyone After Me. Indeed, You Are The Bestower.), 36-38(God Subjected To Solomon Winds, Satan, Devils, And Others In Chains), 39(This Is God’s Gift, Grant Or Withhold No Account Will Be Asked), 41-44(Prophet Ayyub/Job, Spring By Feet, His Sickness And Relief, Oath Fulfillment of Job By Branch Of Tree/Broom), 45-48(Prophet Ibrahim, Isaac, Jacob, Ishmael, Elisha, Zulkifl), 50-54(Garden Of Eden Doors Will Be Opened For Righteous, Reclining On Couches, Drink, Spouces Of Equal Age ), 55-64(Situation Of People Of Hell), 69-87(Dispute Among Angles/Highest Chiefs, At The Time Of Creation Of Adam, Creation Of Man With Two Hands Of God, Angel Prostration, Satan/Devil Refusal And His Plea I Am Better Than Him, Satan/Devil Request To Reprieve Him Until The Day Of Resurrection, God Said; I Will Surely Fill Hell With You And Those Of Them That Follow You All Together)
SURAH SAD BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACK GROUND:
This Surah has 88 verses divided into 5 Rukus/Sections. This Surah was revealed in Mecca at a time when the opposition of Meccans turned from verbal allegations and harassment to physical torture and social bans. This was the time when several Muslims emigrated to nearby land of Abyssinia almost six to seven years before Prophet Muhammad’s migration to Yathrib. Name taken from the first letter of Surah which is one of the Mystery Abbreviated Letters OR Hurrof Al Muqattat a brief introduction of which is already given in Quran Statistics & Facts.
The Surah talks about the basic message of all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah. And briefly tells the story of nine of the Prophets, one after the other. The Prophets suffered and went through much hardship in presenting God’s message. It compares the arrogance of the unbelievers of Mecca to the pride found in previously destroyed nations, and with the arrogance of Satan that the same arrogance which was preventing them from accepting Muhammad as a prophet had prevented Iblis/Devil also from bowing before Adam.
However, this Surah simultaneously also tells that David and Solomon who were great prophets as well as powerful kings, they obeyed Allah and were His true slaves. Their power did not corrupt them or made them ungrateful.