Alif, Lam, Meem. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearer land; and they, after their defeat, will overcome. Within a few years. To Allah belonged the matter before and (to Him it belongs) thereafter. And on that day the believers will rejoice. Surah Rum 30:1-4
The Surah starts with a precise prediction that although the Romans have been defeated, but within a few years, they will again become victorious. The Surah here is referring to the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. When Emperor Maurice was killed by the usurper Phocas, Khosrau II waged war to revenge his death. Although the Persians were victorious during the first stages of the war, capturing much of the Egypt, Levant and even Anatolia. However, the coming to power of Heraclius ultimately drove to the Persians downfall.
But on the face of it, the initial defeat of the Romans (Byzantine Empire) had much impact on Arabia. In those days in Mecca everywhere was the talk of this matter. There were no fast and speedy ways of communication those days but as this was not a small war but a war that lasted for many years thus by people traveling in trade caravans all the matter spread. These were the days when Prophet Muhammad and his early followers were under severe persecution, and few of them took refuge in the nearby country of Abyssinia which was a Christian country and an ally of Romans. So Meccans take this victory as a way to mock and ridicule Muslims that just as the People of Book who believe in God were defeated by Persians same, you were also come to your end by our hands and also that now soon they will get their brats back who were in refuge in Abassinya.
Quran Miracle: Six Prophecies, Predictions and Scientific Facts
So this Surah actually gives six facts, miracles and predictions which fulfilled in a time span of 10-12 years. First is that Romans will be back and defeat their opponent which fulfilled starting from 623 AD with the initial victories of Romans and ends with the final defeat of Persians in the battle of Nineveh in 627AD. Second is “فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ” that is “in the nearer land” which actually proved right as these events happened in the regions much nearer to the region of Arabia. This word also includes another Miracle which you can see in “Miracle of Surah Rum: The Lowest Part of Earth” where you will come to know that in Arabic the literal meaning of أَدْنَى is low/ lowest and this battle where Romans were defeated happened in the regions of Dead Sea which we now come to know that it is the lowest region in the whole world (415 M below sea level).
Prediction Of Mecca Conquest
The other thing in verse is that Muslims will be happy that day: it is fulfilled by the rejoicing of Muslims on seeing the Quran’s claim and prediction coming true and their opponent’s claims turning wrong. Fourth: the same time Muslims won their first battle of Badr in 623AD at the start of Romans victories and then in 628AD Muslims conquered Mecca after Romans decisively defeated Persians in the battle of Nineveh in 627AD.
Miracle Of Universal Application
Fifth if we consider the entire Universe, even then these verses should prove right in the same way. The only thing that comes in mind immediately is whether this planet Earth fulfills the verdict of verse 2 of this Surah. For this it should pass the test of both the meanings that the word “أَدْنَى” has within it. Now as for the first meaning of أَدْنَى “Nearest,” for us humans, this planet Earth is and always be the nearest place because it is our birthplace. Now for the second meaning “Lowest” we need to understand again that on macro scale on this Universe everything is relative and because we humans beings have originated on planet Earth and from here wherever we see or go in this Universe mathematically our starting and zero point will be this Earth which numerically is the lowest as compared to the destination where we would reach. Further, this is the place which as our birth place is under our feet and the lowest while all other places are far and above when we see from the Earth. Lastly, as per Holy scriptures like Bible and Quran, we live in a Universe which exists in the first heaven while there are other Heavens which are called second, third and as per Quran seven heavens. The remaining six heavens are above us thus the lowest point also if we consider all the world/ universes as per Holy scriptures as well as modern science.
Fulfillment Of Prophecy Even By Change Of Qiraat Of Quran
Sixth there are some issues among Muslims regarding Seven Ahroof of Quran or “Multiple Qiraat” of Quran. According to which there are variances of Quran due to differences in accents of Arabic language and because of this some scholars claimed of varied readings in these verses of Surah Rum. They tell us that some read غَلَبَتِ instead of the usual غُلِبَتِ, and سَيُغْلَبُونَ instead of سَيَغْلِبُونَ. Now Arabic is a strange language, and only because of these slight changes in dialect marks these words have opposite meanings. As غُلِبَتِ is (have been defeated) while غَلَبَتِ would be (Overcame/victorious i.e opposite of defeat) similarly سَيَغْلِبُونَ is (will overcome) while سَيُغْلَبُونَ would be (Will be overcome i.e will be defeated)
The new meaning of verses is now like this:
“The Romans have conquered and are victorious in the nearest land, and they will be defeated in a small number of years.
Even if this is the meaning, the miracle of Quran is that the verses do not loose meaning and foretelling of future as in this case even by change of vowels both meanings have proved right by history as now in this case the first part is actually mentioning the victory of Romans and defeat of Persians in 627AD and then history proves that soon after their victory over Persians within few years, Romans got defeated by Muslims.
DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE IMPORTANT WORDS USED IS GIVEN BELOW
The second word of verse 30:3 is a masculine singular noun and is in the genitive case مجرور. The noun’s root is (د ن و). This root occurs 133 times in the Quran, in five derived forms.
N – genitive masculine singular noun اسم مجرور
(د ن و): “Dana” = “Dani” He was or became weak, contemptible low, ignoble; bad or foul; not profitable to anyone/ “Dan” means nearer/close/draw or hanging low or draw close as in 33:59/nearest or lowest as in 30:2. 53:8, Former, first and foremost, low/inferior/worse/veil/ Closer or More Appropriate as in 4:3/ “Adna” Nearer and nearest, opposed to “Aqsa”, Former, first and foremost, More nearer or suitable as in 33:59, less in number or quantity and least there i n, worse; worst; more and most low, ignoble, base, vile mean or weak/ “Duniya” is feminine of “Adna”; Nearer etc.; Within reach, Present life or world.
The first word of verse 30:2 is a passive perfect verb فعل ماض. The verb is third person feminine singular. The verb’s root is (غ ل ب). This root occurs 31 times in the Quran, in five derived forms.
V – 3rd person feminine singular passive perfect verb فعل ماض مبني للمجهول
(غ ل ب): The act of overcoming, conquering, subduing; victory, conquest, ascendancy, mastery, prevalence, predominance, superiority or superior power, force or influence; success in a contest; the act of gaining or taking by force/ “Al Aghlab” The Lion. Maghlûbun مغلوب : One who is overcome by somebody.