QURAN SUMMARY: AL MUMTAHINAH

Surah Mumtahinah Background And Summary of Main Topics.

Surah Mumtahinah Statistics: Total Number of Verses, Revelation Period, Main Characters, Theme And Key Verses.

NAME: الممتحنة, Al-Mumtahina.

Name taken from Verse 10 where there is a mention of a topic regarding examining women who recently migrated from Mecca to Medina and claim that they are Muslims. Hence the name of the Surah “Al-Mumtahina”.

١٠  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ ۖ وَآتُوهُمْ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَنْكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
10  O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. But give the disbelievers what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation. And hold not to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent. That is the judgement of Allah; He judges between you. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.

ENGLISH NAME: She who is Examined.

CHAPTER NUMBER: 60

SURAH MUMTAHINAH TOTAL VERSES: 13

SURAH MUMTAHINAH TOTAL WORDS: 352

TOTAL UNIQUE WORDS WITHOUT REPETITION: 239

TOTAL LETTERS: 1,560

REVELATION PERIOD:

Medinan, Approx. 628 – 629 AD.

MAIN CHARACTERS:

God, Believers, Ibrahim/Abraham, Ibrahim’s Father, Prophet Muhammad, Women who are Examined.

SURAH MUMTAHINAH MAIN TOPICS:

No Friendship With Those Who Are Enemies Of Allah And The Muslims, Examine Those Women Came To You From Such Regions Where Your Enemies Live, Prophet Gets Allegiance By Women On Six Things.

SURAH MUMTAHINAH KEY VERSES:

١  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ

1  O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth, having driven out the Prophet and yourselves [only] because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have come out for jihad in My cause and seeking means to My approval, [take them not as friends]. You confide to them affection, but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.

١٠  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ ۖ وَآتُوهُمْ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَنْكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

10  O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. But give the disbelievers what they have spent. And there is no blame upon you if you marry them when you have given them their due compensation. And hold not to marriage bonds with disbelieving women, but ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent. That is the judgement of Allah; He judges between you. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.

١٢  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ لَا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْرِقْنَ وَلَا يَزْنِينَ وَلَا يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعْصِينَكَ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ۙ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

12  O Prophet, when the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah, nor will they steal, nor will they commit unlawful sexual intercourse, nor will they kill their children, nor will they bring forth a slander they have invented between their arms and legs, nor will they disobey you in what is right – then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

SUMMARY OF TOPICS

1-3(No Friendship With Those Who Are Enemies Of Allah And The Muslim, Moreover Do not Send Secret Messages Even If You Have Relatives On The Other Side), 4(Ibrahim Example, Disassociated Form His Folk, Although He Prayed For His Father), 7(Future Prediction Of Friendship Between Meccans And Medinians), 8-9(Allah Forbids Friendship Only Who Fight You Because Of Religion And Expel You From Your Homes), 10-11( Examine Those Women Came To You From Such Regions, Don’t Send Them Back, Give Their Bridal Dues, If You Lost Your Women Or They Went On Other Side Then Give Those Whose Wives Have Gone The Equivalent Of What They Had Spent), 12(Prophet Gets Allegiance By Women On Six Things)

SURAH MUMTAHINAH BRIEF COMMENTARY & BACKGROUND

This Surah has 13 verses divided into 2 Rukus/Sections. It takes its name from verse 10: “….يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ “(O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them…..) where there is a mention of a topic regarding examining women who recently migrated from Mecca to Medina and claimed that they are Muslims.

This Surah was revealed in Madina around 6th to the 7th year of Hijrah after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah. This Surah answers what should be the relation of Muslims with a non-Muslim.  On the one hand, it tells not to take the enemies of God as their allies, and on the other hand, it tells them not to consider every non-Muslim as their enemy. As per traditions the Surah basically deals with two incidents one related to a companion of Prophet Hatib bin Abz Balta and the other related to Muslim Women who recently migrated.

Hatib sent a secret letter with a woman from the tribe of Quraysh to Meccans to inform them of the intended attack of Muslims just before the conquest of Mecca and Prophet by Divine revelation came to know and send Ali bin Abu Talib to get it back from the woman. When Ali came back, the Prophet asked Hatib what he did. Hatib replied, `O Prophet of God Do not make a decision about me in haste. As you know that I do not belong to Quraysh, but I was an ally to them. All the Migrants who are with you have relatives in Makkah who can take care of and protect their families. So I wanted to do a favor to Quraysh, so they might not harm my family. I did not do this out of disbelief or to run away from my religion, nor did I do it to choose disbelief after Islam. Umar said, `O Prophet of God! Allow me to cut off the head of this hypocrite. The Prophet said,

إِنَّهُ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا، وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ اللهَ اطَّلَعَ إِلَى أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ فَقَالَ: اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ فَقَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَكُم

He attended Badr. What can I tell you, perhaps God looked at those who attended Badr and said, “O the people of Badr, do what you like, for I have forgiven you.

The second part of Surah relates to issues concerning with the emigrants and especially Muslim Women, who had started emigrating from Mecca to Madina, after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, and the problem originated whether they also were to be returned to the disbelievers, like the Muslim men, according to the conditions of the Treaty. Further, it has been instructed to examine and ask the women who accept Islam to pledge that they would refrain from the major sins.