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Quantum physics: Top unique features of Quantum world.

Please read How small is an atom, Introduction to Quantum physics, Empty Space Is Not Empty and Matter is an illusion  before or in conjunction with this article.

8 unique features of Quantum world 

The quantum world is the world that is smaller than an atom. Things at this scale do not behave the same way as objects on the scale that we can see. This subatomic matter does not follow the same rules as objects that we can see, feel or hold. Let me tell you the top unique features of this world.

1-Quantum world: It is Almost empty

First, all quantum world is almost empty that is an atom is made of 99.99% empty space as I told you in detail in part 18. That’s why you can compress matter to tremendous extents. The whole human race can be compressed to the size of a sugar cube.

2-Quantum World: Particles or Waves

Second, sometimes they behave like clumps of matter sometimes like waves, but whenever we observe them directly, they appear to us as particles. This is already proved by double slit experiment according to which, if you observe which of two slits light passes through, you force it to behave like a particle. If you don’t and observe only where it lands on a screen behind the slits, it behaves like a wave. It seems that after interactions and observation their wave like nature collapse to a particle.

3-Quantum World: Wheeler’s delayed choice or quantum eraser

Third observing a particle now may change what happened to another one in the past. This is called Wheeler’s delayed choice or quantum eraser and it can be considered a modified version of the double slit experiment. In this case, if you wait for the particle to pass through the slit, and then observe which way it came through, it will retroactively force it to have passed through one or the other. In other words, causality is working backwards; the present is affecting the past.

4-Quantum World: Two places at the same time

Fourth a quantum particle can be considered to be at two places at the same time.

5-Quantum World: Existence out of nothingness

Fifth a particle can spontaneously come into existence out of nothingness, as well as disappear into nothingness. 

6-Quantum World: No cause of Radioactive decay

Sixth a radioactively decaying nucleus of an atom can spontaneously break down into other nuclei without any clue what causes the decay.

7-Quantum entanglement and teleportation

Seventh is quantum entanglement and teleportation by which particles may be entangled or connected even if they are separated by the expanse of the universe. Imagine that you and a friend had two coins with a magical connection. If one showed up heads, the other would always be tails. You each take your coins at different places and then flip them at the same time. If yours comes up heads, then at the exact same moment you know your friend’s coin has just come up tails. Entangled particles work like those coins. In the lab physicist have already entangled pairs of photons then send the pairs to a lab in a different city now the latest by Chinese scientists at a distance of 1200Km. When they measured something about the photon in their lab, the other one was affected immediately.

Applying quantum entanglement scientists have been able to teleport particles. In July 2017 Researchers in China have teleported a photon from the ground to a satellite orbiting more than 500 kilometers above. Whether in future we would be able to teleport heavier stuff e.g human beings is at the moment far from achievement. A single human being contains a huge amount of particles and that means an immense amount of data would need to be transferred for human teleportation. There are more particles in the human body than there are stars in this universe.

Human Teleportation

But in theory, it could be possible and for this, we need four chambers. Two chambers with particles entangled with each other and the 3rd one as a scanner at the place of departure and the 4th one at the place of arrival. In the scanner, we enter and it scans all our body particles get all information of quantum state than compare that with the particle chamber at the place of departure and make a list of all particles. This information will be then sent to the arrival place where the particles are already entangled with the chamber at departure place and replicate the quantum state of each of individual particles of our body, creating an exact replica.  Meanwhile, the original person has been destroyed as it is a must in teleportation protocol that the thing that is being transported is destroyed in the process.

8-Quantum tunneling: The Egyptian Pyramids can change its structure to a square.

The eighth unique feature of the quantum world is that a particle can tunnel spontaneously from one place to another, bypassing the limit of the speed of light. How far the particle goes after this tunneling effect is limited only by probabilities the farther, the less probable. It has important applications to modern devices such as the tunnel diode, quantum computing, and the scanning tunneling microscope. Particles have the ability to cross barriers they shouldn’t be able to and the reason for this is the particle’s wave function. Quantum tunneling is responsible for nuclear fusion in our sun. In the Sun hydrogen atoms fuse together to create helium and other heavier elements, releasing huge amounts of energy in the process. The hydrogen nuclei consist of positively charged protons and as like charges repel each other fusion only occurs when a huge amount of heat is applied to overcome this barrier and force the protons together. But our Sun is not hot enough to give the protons the energy required to overcome their repulsion. The reason why the protons can overcome the repulsion between their positive charges is because of quantum tunneling. Because of proton’s wave function, there is a small probability that some of them will tunnel across the barrier and fuse with the other proton creating heavier elements and thus fueling the Sun. According to the laws of quantum physics, there is a non zero probability that the Indian Ocean could freeze in summer or that the Egyptian Pyramids change its structure to a square. There is no need of magic for such events only the tiny probability that all quanta involved quickly tunnel to all the right places to form the ice crystals in Indian ocean OR to form the walls of Pyramid in its new position.

Why do we never observe such happenings is because the probability of even a small number of particles tunneling at a time is very very small. Not to talk they’re ending up at all the right places to reconstitute a physical object, and the happening of this for the vast numbers of particles included in any noticeable material object.

Will come soon!

Will come soon!

Will come soon!