The Mighty Mongol Empire And Its Islamization
Also read Was Abu Talib A Muslim, Root cause of Division, Uthman, Battle of Jamal, Siffin 1, Siffin 2 , Karbala , Umayyads to Ottomans And Major Muslim Empires before or in conjunction with this article.
Mongol Empire Summarized
Before going to Mughals rule in sub-continent let me discuss here the Mighty Mongol Empire. Because it is this Mongol era which caused an irrecoverable loss to Muslims. But ultimately gave birth to the second phase of Islamic dominance in the region. And Mughal Emperors of sub-continent were actually descendants of Ganges Khan.
The Rise Of Genghis Khan
The Mighty Mongol Empire was founded in 1206AD by Temujin known as Ganges Khan. In 1125AD China, The Jin Dynasty overthrew Liao dynasty also known as Khitan Empire as it was mostly comprised of Khitan people. Jin rulers known as golden kings followed the same policy of divide and rule as Liao Khitan empire did for Mongolian Zubu tribes. A common name of Mongol tribes among which most known were Khamag Mongols and Tatars. When Temujin great grandfather’s successor Ambaghai Khan betrayed by Tatars and they handed him over to Jin dynasty.
Mongol attacked Tatars and get defeated by Jin and Tatar armies in 1161Ad. Then there were many tribal wars and in this vacuum and chaos in 1189 Temujin became the Khan of Khamag Mongols and later because of his policy of sharing all war spoils with his soldiers rather than only with elites and because of adapting people of the conquered territory in his tribe, he got great power and support. But simultaneously it also caused a rift and dissatisfaction within tribe and elders thus resulting in a war after which he defeated all rivals, unified all nomadic tribes and assumed the title of Genghis Khan the universal leader. He led campaigns in every direction overthrowing Jin in China, Tibet, qara Kitai and west to central Asia and Persia and Caucus thus founding the largest Land empire in the history.
The Fall Of The Mongols
After his death in 1227AD, Ogedei his third son became emperor as he was already named by Ganges. After Ogedei death in 1241 AD the empire split due to dispute whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ogedei or from one of his other sons, such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. After ten years of chaos and bloodshed The Toluids prevailed and Touli son Mongke Khan become ruler and rules from 1251-1259AD. After Mogke death there was again a chaos and in 1260 Kublai Khan fourth son of Tolui became the 5th Khagan Emporer of Mongol empire. He also established the Yuan dynasty in China in 1271AD. He ruled as the first Yuan emperor till his death in 1294 AD. By the time of Kublai Khan’s death, with no accepted Khan in existence, the Mongol Empire was divided into four separate Khanates or empires. The Golden Horde consisting of Russia, Ukraine, Black Sea region, the Caucasus. The Ilkhanate of Iraq and Persia. The Chagatai Khanate consisted of 5 Central Asian republics and the Yuan dynasty China. Out of these four empires or Khanates excluding the last one, all others converted to Islam.
Islamisation of the Mongol Empire
As I already told you that Mongols had caused much loss to the Islamic World. So much so that the word holocaust has sometimes been used to describe it. Under Mongke Khan rule he sent his brother Hulagu Khan to conquer Persia, Syria, Egypt and to destroy the Abbasid Caliphate and to establish the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran. In the 1258AD siege of Baghdad, He plundered looted and put on fire the rich Islamic culture of that time and pushed Islamic civilization in dark ages. But from the ashes of this destruction rise the eventual Islamisation of the entire Mongol Empire, outside of China and Mongolia. This is what I always say to you That God has its own way of doing things and if you do not change yourself, He will replace you by another people.