THE TALE OF A NATION-7
A Detailed Analysis Of Muslim History
Sects and further sub-sects: Sects In Sunni Islam.
Recitation of the Holy Scripture.
It is God who has sent down the Book in truth and the balance. And what will make you perceive? Perhaps the Hour is near.
Those who do not believe in it are impatient for it, but those who believe are fearful of it and know that it is the truth. Unquestionably, those who dispute concerning the Hour are in extreme error.
Whoever desires the harvest of the Hereafter. We increase for him in his harvest. And whoever desires the harvest of this world. We give him thereof, but there is not for him in the Hereafter any share.
Or have they other deities who have ordained for them a religion to which God has not consented? But if not for the decisive word, it would have been concluded between them. And indeed, the wrongdoers will have a painful punishment.
And he whom God sends astray, for him there is no protector beyond Him. And you will see the wrongdoers, when they see the punishment, saying, “Is there any way to return?
And there will not be for them any allies to aid them other than God. And whoever God sends astray – for him there is no way.
End of Recitation of the Holy Scripture.
In part 32, I told you about major Sunni Sects. Then there are sub-sects, groups and movements within Sunnis sects mostly on differences on the following issues First: Reverence of Prophet, Sahaba Companions and Ahle Bait. Second: Powers and knowledge of prophets and saints in life and after their death. Third: Intercession right of humans. Forth: Can someone receive goodness after death by charity or by the recitation of Scripture. Just to give you a brief introduction Braelvi are on the one end of celebrating all that and Wahabi and Salafis on the other extreme of rejecting all that.
Starting from the introduction of Barelvi. They are Mostly Hanafi but they can be from Maliki, Shafi and Hanbali schools and can have Sufi inspiration choosing Qadiri, Chishti, Saharwardi or any other Sufi way. Barelvi doctrine founded by Ahmed Raza Khan born in 1856 and died in 1921 AD in Braelli India. They mostly call themselves Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat or as Sunnis to show they are the mainstream Sunnis. They have Over 200 Million followers mainly in South Asia. They believe Muhammad a human but created from Nur Light, present at many places and see whats going on earth and knows about Ghaib unseen and future. They Do Milad celebration of Muhammad’s birthday, Listen to Qawali and Sufi Music, Believe on intercession and visit graves tombs and revere dead and living saints. They are against Deobandi, Taliban and Jihadists. Main organization and institutions are Minhaj-ul-Quran, Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Tehreek-e-Labaik, Sunni Ittehad Council, Jamaat Ahle Sunnat, Dawat-e-Islami, Sunni Tehreek, Al Jamiatul Ashrafia India, Jamia Nizamia, Hyderabad India, Manzar-e-Islam India, Jamia Naeemia Lahore, Jamia Amjadia Rizvia Karachi, Jamia Nizamia Ghousia Wazirabad Pakistan. Significant books are Kanzul Iman, translation & explanation of the Holy Quran. Fatawa Razaviyya a 30 volume Fatwa compilation Islamic verdicts on various issues almost 22000 pages. And Husam al Harmain Ala Munhir kufr wal myvan (The Sword of the Haramayn at the throat of unbelief and falsehood) 1906 is a treatise which declared infidels the founders of the Deobandi, Ahle Hadith and Ahmadiyya movements. Specially Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Rasheed Gangohi, Qasim Nanotvi of Deobandi and Mirza Ghulam Qadiyani of Ahmadiyya. And obtained confirmatory signatures from more than 200 Sunni scholars in South Asia, Mecca and Medina.
Now lets put some light on Deobandi doctrine founded in 1867 in Darul Uloom Deoband by Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi and Sayyid Abid inspired by teachings of Shah Waliullah Dehlawi 1703–1762 AD. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Darul Uloom Deoband was the most influential Islamic teaching place along with Al Azhar Cairo. In 1919, some Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the Pakistan Movement as they were in favor of United Hindu Muslim effort against British rule. But few of them supported Jinnah and made their own version in 1945 as Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam. Shabbir Ahmad Usmani was its first president.
Deobandis are sometimes called as Wahabis by Shias and Brelvis due to their relative closeness with their beliefs and for because they get more support for madrassa and schools from Saudi Govt and have the network of Madrasas and schools throughout the subcontinent, Europe and Africa. They strongly support Taqleed that a Muslim should follow one of any four schools of Jurisprudence. Main organization and institutions are Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, Tablighi Jamaat. Some militant organizations also formed which have Deobandi influences and doctrines like Sipah-e-Sahaba, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Taliban, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and to some extent Jaish-e-Mohammed.
Then comes Ahl-i Hadith: A Religious movement started in the mid-1800s from north India and now followers are mostly in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. They regard Quran, Sunnah and Hadeeth as the sole source and reject Taqleed i.e rejection of following of all that included in Islam after those earlier days. Thus they are a direct opponent of Deobandis. Further, they are also in direct conflict and rivalry with Braelvis because of rejection OR giving less or no importance to the saints and Sufis. Opponents consider them as Wahabi and Salafi because of the closeness of ideas and beliefs. Critics say that they are now being favored more by Saudi Govt. over the rival Deobandi movement.
Now a brief introduction of the Salafi doctrine. Salafism is a Religious movement started in Egypt in the late 19th century or according to other sources, it is related to the 18th century Wahabi movement in Hejaz. Its name derived from its reliance on the tradition of Salaf the first three generations of Muslims i.e Muhammad’s Sahabah (companions), Tabi’un their successors and Taba Tabi‘in the successors of the successors. It has three type of followers. Those who avoid politics, others who actively participate and some indulge in Jihadist activities. Also divided among those who utterly reject Taqlid or following any of four major Islamic schools and some who accepts Taqleed and these are the one mostly inspired by Hanbali school. Mostly Salfis reside in Saudi Arab almost 23% of population, Qatar 47%, UAE 45% and 3-6% in Bahrain and Kuwait. Salafis believe that Salafism is not a modern movement but date back to the first few generations of Islam and for that, they rely on some past quotes mentioning the word Salafia. Many think Wahabi founders to have been Salafis. Also, Ahl e Hadith are considered as a modified version of Salafism and Wahabism. West thinks that Salafi and Wahabi groups are involved in the support and supply of arms to militant jihadist groups around the world.
Then comes Wahhabism, founded by Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab a religious leader and theologian from Najd in central Arabia born in 1703AD and died in 1792AD. The followers are Mostly Hanbali and relied on theology of Ibn Taymiyyah and prefer themselves not to be called Wahabis but either muwahhid or sometime Salafis. It started as an Islamic reform movement to restore pure monotheistic worship and get rid of Taqleed, reverence and visiting saints or their graves which they considered as Bidah (Innovation in Islam). To spread his ideas, Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab joined hands with Muhammad bin Saud a political elite and entered into a pact that he will help bin Saud to establish his rule and in return bin Saud and his family will support his doctrine. This power-sharing formula continues even after the establishment of modern day Saudi Arabia and still the leading religious elite “The Al Ash Shaeikh” in Saudia are Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s descendants. Wahhabism also called an ultra-conservative, more strict Saudi brand of Salafism. From the opponents, Wahabism is charged with an accusation of being a source of Muslim terrorism and catalyst ideology for ISIS and for labeling the Muslims not following their doctrine as an infidel and also for the destruction of Shrines and tombs of saints.
If my Lord Wills- I will continue this topic in next program.
Recitation of the Holy Scripture.
And if God willed, He could have made them one community, but He admits whom He wills into His Mercy. And the wrongdoers have no protector or helper.
Or have they taken protectors [or allies] besides him? But God – He is the Protector, and He gives life to the dead, and He is over all things competent.
And in anything over which you disagree – its ruling is [to be referred] to God. [Say], “That is God, my Lord; upon Him I put my trust, and to Him I turn back.”
And they did not become divided until after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. And if not for a word that preceded from your Lord until a specified time, it would have been concluded between them. And indeed those, who were granted inheritance of the Scripture after them, are in disturbing doubt- concerning it.