Mysteries at the Micro Level 1: Quantum physics explained in detail. Eight unique features of the Quantum world.
Recitation of the Holy Scripture.
Those who disbelieve say, “The Hour will not come to us.” Say, “Nay, by my Lord, it will surely come to you. (He is the) Knower of the unseen.” Not escapes from Him the weight of a particle in the earth and in the heavens or anything smaller than that or greater but is written in a clear Record.
So that God will recompense every soul for what it earned. Indeed, God is swift in account.
This is a notification for the people that they may be warned thereby and that they may know that He is but one God and that those of understanding will be reminded.
End of Recitation of the Holy Scripture.
O people I already told you about Planks length in part 16 and about size comparison of an atom with that of its nucleus in part 18. And now you already have an idea of the vastness of this universe as well as its smallest things and building blocks. But the problem is that at the macro level all that we see from ourselves to all the various things on earth, and then on an even bigger scale, stars and galaxies, all work under well defined laws. But at micro level on the smallest scale i.e at the elementary particles level the universe is strange. There it do not obey the laws of physics as we know. The first person who gave the concept of the smallest particle was Democritus in 460 BC. He says cut anything until get very small that you cannot cut more. That he called “atomos” In Greek “a” means “Not” and “tomos” means “Cut” i.e indivisible that you cannot cut more. Then in 1897 J.J.Thomson discovered Electron by cathode rays tubes. Then exactly after 14 years in 1911 Ernest Rutherford with his gold foil experiment passing Alpha particles gave the idea that atoms have their charge concentrated in a tiny nucleus, and electron having a -ve charge around it and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom.
Then comes Neils Bohr, he said this is not possible as the two attract and should join so he gave a model of the atom with a nucleus inside and electron in different orbits moving around nucleus for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Then comes Schrodinger and he says that electrons are not particles but Waves, so competition between Bohr & him as Bohr says Particle he says wave. This is the time when comes Heisenberg he says both are correct and this is what we have quantum theory today. This problem is not limited to electron or photons. It extends to electrons and protons and other particles as small or smaller than atoms. And later in 1970 we found that proton and neutron are also not basic fundamental particles but made up of quarks. All this is one of the biggest mysteries in the study of the smallest parts of the universe. This is the field known as quantum physics.
The quantum world is the world that is smaller than an atom. Things at this scale do not behave the same way as objects on the scale that we can see. This subatomic matter does not follow the same rules as objects that we can see, feel or hold. Let me tell you the top unique features of this world.
First, all quantum world is almost empty that is an atom is made of 99.99% empty space as I told you in detail in part 18. That’s why you can compress matter to tremendous extents. The whole human race can be compressed to the size of a sugar cube. Second, sometimes they behave like clumps of matter sometimes like waves, but whenever we observe them directly, they appear to us as particles. This is already proved by double slit experiment according to which, if you observe which of two slits light passes through, you force it to behave like a particle. If you don’t and observe only where it lands on a screen behind the slits, it behaves like a wave. It seems that after interactions and observation their wave like nature collapse to a particle. Third observing a particle now may change what happened to another one in the past. This is called Wheeler’s delayed choice or quantum eraser and it can be considered a modified version of the double slit experiment. In this case, if you wait for the particle to pass through the slit, and then observe which way it came through, it will retroactively force it to have passed through one or the other. In other words, causality is working backwards; the present is affecting the past.
Fourth a quantum particle can be considered to be at two places at the same time. Fifth a particle can spontaneously come into existence out of nothingness, as well as disappear into nothingness.
Sixth a radioactively decaying nucleus of an atom can spontaneously break down into other nuclei without any clue what causes the decay. Seventh is quantum entanglement and teleportation by which particles may be entangled or connected even if they are separated by the expanse of the universe. Imagine that you and a friend had two coins with a magical connection. If one showed up heads, the other would always be tails. You each take your coins at different places and then flip them at the same time. If yours comes up heads, then at the exact same moment you know your friend’s coin has just come up tails. Entangled particles work like those coins. In the lab physicist have already entangled pairs of photons then send the pairs to a lab in a different city now the latest by Chinese scientists at a distance of 1200Km. When they measured something about the photon in their lab, the other one was affected immediately.
Applying quantum entanglement scientists have been able to teleport particles. In July 2017 Researchers in China have teleported a photon from the ground to a satellite orbiting more than 500 kilometers above. Whether in future we would be able to teleport heavier stuff e.g human beings is at the moment far from achievement. A single human being contains a huge amount of particles and that means an immense amount of data would need to be transferred for human teleportation. There are more particles in the human body than there are stars in this universe. But in theory, it could be possible and for this, we need four chambers. Two chambers with particles entangled with each other and the 3rd one as a scanner at the place of departure and the 4th one at the place of arrival. In the scanner, we enter and it scans all our body particles get all information of quantum state than compare that with the particle chamber at the place of departure and make a list of all particles. This information will be then sent to the arrival place where the particles are already entangled with the chamber at departure place and replicate the quantum state of each of individual particles of our body, creating an exact replica. Meanwhile, the original person has been destroyed as it is a must in teleportation protocol that the thing that is being transported is destroyed in the process.
The eighth unique feature of the quantum world is that a particle can tunnel spontaneously from one place to another, bypassing the limit of the speed of light. How far the particle goes after this tunneling effect is limited only by probabilities the farther, the less probable. It has important applications to modern devices such as the tunnel diode, quantum computing, and the scanning tunneling microscope. Particles have the ability to cross barriers they shouldn’t be able to and the reason for this is the particle’s wave-function. Quantum tunneling is responsible for nuclear fusion in our sun. In the Sun hydrogen atoms fuse together to create helium and other heavier elements, releasing huge amounts of energy in the process. The hydrogen nuclei consist of positively charged protons and as like charges repel each other fusion only occurs when a huge amount of heat is applied to overcome this barrier and force the protons together. But our Sun is not hot enough to give the protons the energy required to overcome their repulsion. The reason why the protons can overcome the repulsion between their positive charges is because of quantum tunneling. Because of proton’s wave function, there is a small probability that some of them will tunnel across the barrier and fuse with the other proton creating heavier elements and thus fueling the Sun. According to the laws of quantum physics, there is a non zero probability that the Indian Ocean could freeze in summer or that the Egyptian Pyramids change its structure to a square. There is no need of magic for such events only the tiny probability that all quanta involved quickly tunnel to all the right places to form the ice crystals in Indian ocean OR to form the walls of Pyramid in its new position. Why do we never observe such happenings is because the probability of even a small number of particles tunneling at a time is very very small. Not to talk they’re ending up at all the right places to reconstitute a physical object, and the happening of this for the vast numbers of particles included in any noticeable material object.
Experiments verify the accuracy of quantum predictions. Engineers used their discoveries about photon behavior to build lasers. The predictions of quantum mechanics have proved so reliable that we cannot ignore the experimental evidence to confirm the theory. The entire electronics industry is built on using quantum theory; those principles have led to the invention of lasers, transistors and the integrated circuit. But when engineers build these devices, they do so following rules that they don’t fully understand. At the moment the next big thing is Quantum Computer that makes direct use of quantum phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data by using a particles ability to be in many states at once means that multiple processes can be executed simultaneously increasing our computing power exponentially. Due to the way the tiniest of particles behave, operations can be done much more quickly and use less energy than classical computers. In classical computing, a bit is a single piece of information that can exist in two states 1 or 0. Quantum computing uses quantum bits, or ‘qubits’. These are quantum systems with two states. However, unlike a usual bit, they can store much more information than just 1 or 0, because they can exist in any superposition of these values.
O people by listening all this I told you from part 16 till this program. It looks like science fiction but this is the new reality of modern science. Any rational mind will easily comprehend that there is nothing simple in this universe. Be it a small object in your hands or stars in the sky. Moreover, it becomes more complicated when you think that even the food you eat today, is made of particles, most of which have such elements which are created billions of year ago in some star. So just to get our food we really need to create the entire universe with all the minute details it had.
God’s power is manifested through this vast universe with trillions of stars. And in small particles like atoms which are actually miniature replicas of the solar system. Where electrons dance around the nuclei of atoms. The unparalleled unmatched and incomparable magnitude of your Lord’s power is also witnessed in the depth of the matter. Infinite vastness has been created from these particles. The designer of that bit of dust is also the designer of the universe. The creation of the tiniest and of the largest is equal for Him.
Whether you observe the Giant galaxies with billions of stars or dig down to the microscopic depths. You confront the same perfection and greatness of God’s work and design.
Recitation of the Holy Scripture.
Blessed is He in whose hand is dominion, and He is over all things competent.
He who created death and life to test you which of you is best in deed and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving.
He Who created seven heavens one above another. You do not see any fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. So look again; can you see any flaw?
Then return your vision twice again. Your vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued.