THE TALE OF A NATION-10

A Detailed Analysis Of Muslim History- After Hussein Till Today

(From Umayyad Caliphate Till Birth Of Pakistan, Turkey, Iran & KSA)

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

This is a declaration for the people and guidance and admonition for the God-fearing.

And do not weaken and do not grieve and you will be superior, if you are believers.

If a wound has touched you, then certainly a similar wound has touched the other nations. And these days of varying fortunes, We alternate among the people so that God makes evident those who believe and take from among you martyrs. And God does not love the wrongdoers.

End of Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

O Muslims now I will tell you a summary of your history after Hussein till today. I told you that you cannot go forward from here if you don’t admit the mistakes of your past. If you do not correct your history and that the disease is there and in all the past centuries you only tried to hide it but the wound is not healing because wounds do not heal like this. They need a special care specific diagnosis and then a proper treatment and sometimes even surgery. Remember If you don’t heal, the others have to deal. That is if you don’t heal your wounds the people around will play with your wounds. People in other communities hate you, not because of your golden inheritance as you think or that you have a true religion that might be a potential threat to other communities. No this is not the case it is because of the potential threat they have because of your ignorance. Because of the ignorance which your religious clerics and rulers intentionally planted and flourishing in your communities since centuries. By your Lord, in ignorance and trap of your elites you are fighting with each other. Although it is too late but even now if you repent your Lord and prostrate to Him in submission with tears in your eyes and softness in your hearts and if you cry and ask forgiveness and confess your sins, Your Lord is faithful and just to forgive you and to cleanse you from all unrighteousness. God makes possible the things that seem impossible.

Umayyad Caliphate

Now Let’s turn towards Muslim history after Hussein. Umayyad caliphate runs for almost 90 years started with Muawiya in 661 AD and ends at Marwan II in 750 AD with a total of 14 rulers. Their capital remained Damascus in Syria till 744 AD then it changed to Harran. Then in 750 AD their rule ends with defeat and death of Marwan II by Abbasids after which all the members of the Umayyad family were murdered, except Abd-al-Rahman, who fled to Spain and founded an independent Umayyad Khalifat there as Caliphate of Cordoba which lasted from 756AD till 1031 AD with a total of 17 rulers. The caliphate disintegrated during a civil war, the Fitna of al-Andalus, between the descendants of the last caliph, Hisham II, and the successors of his hayib (court official), Al-Mansur. The last Cordoban Caliph was Hisham III (1027–1031). Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031AD into a number of independent Taifas.

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate succeeded the Umayyad. They are descended of  Muhammad’s uncle Abbas bin Abd al-Muttalib. Abu Hashim bin Muhammad Hanafia, the grandson of Ali bin Abu Talib, handed over political Imamate of Ahl-e-Bait to Muhammad bin Ali, the grandson of Abbas uncle of Prophet. Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah is Ali’s sons other than Hasan and Hussein. He was called Ibn al-Hanafiyyah after his mother, Khawlah bint Jafar she was known as Hanafiyyah, “the Hanafi woman,” after her tribe Banu Hanifah. After Karbala when Hussein and almost all family died, and  Ali bin Hussein adopted a life of worship and prayer Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah became the visible head of the house of Ali. After Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya died, his son Abu Hashim claimed the Imamate. After his death, the Abbasids claimed that on his deathbed Abu Hashim nominated his distant cousin Muhammad bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas as the Imam. This man’s son Abul-Abbas Abdullah As-Saffah became the first Abbasid caliph, repudiating Shiism, which effectively extinguished the sect that had recognized Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah as an Imam. Remember the religious Imamate of Ahl e bait remained with Ali’s progeny from Fatima. Over time, Abbasi family gained enough power to overturn the Umayyad Government. They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad with a total of 39 Rulers from 750 AD to1258AD. After this most powerful rule of almost 500 years, they started losing grip and ended with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan in 1258AD. The last caliph was al-Mustasim Billah. However, a part of their family re-centered themselves in Cairo in 1261 and ruled as the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo with a total of 22 rulers with Al-Mustansir billah as first ruler and al-Mutawakkil ʿalallah III the last one, from 1261 till 1517AD until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517AD.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman empire or Caliphate was founded by Osman I in 1299 AD. Then Sultan Mehmed The conquerer captured Constantinople modern day Istanbul in 1453 AD. They grew into a mighty power which later reached at its height during the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent in 16th century that time it stretched from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north and the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungry in the west. The Empire almost run for more than 600 years from 1299 till 1922.

The empire came to an end in the aftermath of its defeat by the Allies in World War I. The empire was dismantled by the Allies after the war ended in 1918. The Sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI Vahdettin left the country on 17 November 1922 thus ending 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule and hence is the beginning of modern-day Turkey as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire. The official proclaiming of the republic was on 29 October 1923 in Ankara.

In between all this period of Abbasid and Ottoman empires, there were many prominent independent Muslim kingdoms in different parts of the world. A brief introduction of which is vital to understand the present scenario.

Fatimids and Qarmatians

Now you already know that  Ismailis separated from the Main Shia group as they accepted Ismail ibn Jafar as their Imam instead of Musa Kazim while actually, Ismail died before his father Jafar Sadiq. Some Ismaili deny the death of Ismail in the life of his father. On the death of 6th Shia Imam Jafar Sadiq, they believed Ismail was the seventh and the last Imam and considered Ismail’s son Muhammad bin Ismail, as Mahdi who will return in future and bring peace and justice in the world. They are known as Seveners. The split among them came with the death of Muḥammad ibn Ismail. The majority denied his death; they recognized him as the Mahdi and the peak manifest of their political power is Qarmatians. The minority believed in his death and would eventually emerge in later times as the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, which is also the precursors to all modern Ismaili groups.

Starting from the Fatimid Caliphate about which I also talked in part 34 and 35. The Fatimid claimed their descent from Fatima, daughter of prophet Muhammad. It was an empire established by a fraction of Ismaili Shia. As there 10th Imam Abd Allah al-Akbar with his son, the 11th Imam Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, went to Morroco to escape from the persecution of Abbasid Caliphate and then preached there for a long time. They got allies like dedicated Shiite Abu Abdallah al-Shii who went to present day Tunisia and preached the Ismaili doctrine there. He managed to gain the support of Berber peasants, oppressed for decades and with their help conquered that area and made Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah the leader of the state and as Imam and caliph. With a total of 14 Rulers, the caliphate run from 909AD till 1171AD when Saladin invaded this territory. He founded the Ayyubid dynasty and incorporated the Fatimid state into the Abbasid Caliphate. Al-Azid was the fourteenth and last Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty.

Now some light on another Muslim religious dynasty called Qarmatians.

The Ismaili’s became active in the second half of the 9th century in southern Iraq under the leadership of Hamdan Qarmaṭ. That branch of the sect came to be known as the Qaramitah, and they flourished in Iraq, Yemen, and especially in Bahrain during from 9th to 11th centuries. They became very extremist and violent under leadership and rule of Abu Said al-Jannabi and his son and successor, Abu Tahir Sulayman who sacked Mecca and Medina in 930 AD. In their attack on Islam’s holiest sites, the Qarmatians desecrated the Zamzam Well with corpses of Hajj pilgrims and took the Black Stone from Mecca to al-Hasa under their possession.

Parallel to all this a lot of other activity happening in other parts of the world and empires and rulers emerging and vanishing from the scene. Samanid, Seljuk, Ghurids and Ayyubis are among those.

Samanid Empire

Samanid Empire was an Iranian empire ruling from 819 to 999AD. The empire was mostly centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana present-day Uzbekistan and parts of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. The four grandsons of the dynasty’s founder, Saman-Khoda, had been rewarded with provinces for their faithful service to the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun.  In 892AD, Ismail bin Ahmad united the Samanid state under one ruler made Samarkand and Bukhara as capital and rules for almost 180 years.

Seljuk Empire

Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian-Sunni Muslim empire From 1037-1194AD founded by Seljuk-Beg but it converted into an empire by his grandson Tughril Beg in 1037 AD. They are ruling military family of the Oguz Turkic tribes that attacked southwestern Asia in the 11th century and ultimately laid the foundation of an empire that included Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and most of Iran. Their advance marked the beginning of Turkish power in the Middle East. Their reign is characterized by Persian astronomers such as Omar Khayyam, and the Persian philosopher al-Ghazali. Under Tughril Beg the Seljuks wrested an empire from the Ghaznavids. They sacked Ghazni in 1037 and in 1040AD at the Battle of Dandanaqan decisively defeated Masud I of the Ghaznavids. It has seen its peak under Under the Sultans Alp Arslan and Malik Shāh and played a vital role in the first and second crusades. Their famous minister Nizam al Mulk oversaw the empire’s organization during both their reigns. Among the many mosques built by the sultans was the Great Mosque of Esfahan.

Ghurid Dynasty

Now Ghurid dynasty was founded by Amir Suri from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan and remain from 879-1215 AD. They were of eastern Iranian ethnic origin and Budh in religion. Later after Muhmud Ghaznavid conquest of Ghor in 1011AD the grandson of Amir Suri Abu Ali ibn Muhammad converted to Islam and was the first Muslim ruler of Ghurid Dynasty. Later in 1186 AD Muizz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori Known as Shuhab udin Ghuri overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire and conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore. He was the ruler who laid the foundation of Muslim rule in subcontinent which remained for centuries. After the death of his brother Ghiyath Uddin Ghuri in 1202, he became the sole successor of the Ghurid Empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206AD. He ruled on Iran, Afghanistan, North India Pakistan, Bangladesh, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. After his assassination, The Ghurids were succeeded in Khorasan and Persia by the Khwarazmian dynasty, and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Shahabuddin Ghori is buried in Gujar Khan Pakistan.

Ayyubid Dynasty

Ayyubid dynasty was founded by a Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity Saladin Ayyubi in 1171 which lasted till 1260AD. Nur ad-Din Zengi who was a member of the Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire, sent a general of his army Shiruk to consolidate Fatimid caliph Al-Adid and his minister Shawar, Saladin accompanies his uncle, Shirukh. Shirkuh, seize Egypt from the minister Shawar in 1169 AD. Shirkuh died within two months after taking power, and thus rule handed over to his nephew Saladin. Saladin becomes very close to the Fatimid government because of his military successes against Crusaders and his personal closeness to Al-Adid. After the death of Al Adid in 1171AD and three years later after death of Nur ad-Din Zengi he entirely took control and becomes the Sultan. Saladin displaced the Shiite Fatimid dynasty, further mobilized Muslim enthusiasm to create a united front against the Crusades, and made Egypt the most influential Muslim state in the world at that time. Saladin began granting his family members high-ranking positions in the country and increased Sunni Muslim influence in Shia Muslim-dominated Cairo by ordering the construction of a college for the Maliki school of jurisprudence of Sunni Islam in the city, and another for the Shafi’i school, to which he belonged, in al-Fustat. The Ayyubids, zealous Sunni Muslims seeking to convert Muslim Shiites and Christians, introduced into Egypt and Jerusalem the madrassas, an academy of religious sciences. The dynasty has a total of 7 Sultans and the 8th one Al Ashraf was actually a puppet of Mamluk King Izz ad-Din Aybak who gained rule by marrying Shajar al-Durr, the wife of As-Salih Ayyub.

If my Lord Wills, I Will continue this in next Program.

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

We have shown man the right path. Now it is up to him to be grateful or thankless.

And God presents an example: a city which was safe and secure, its provision coming to it in abundance from every location, but it denied the favors of Allah. So God made it taste the envelopment of hunger and fear for what they had been doing.

God did not do injustice to them, but they had wronged themselves”.

Your Lord does no injustice to His slaves.

Mamluks: Muslim Rulers Of Slave Origin

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

And when We intend to destroy a city, We command its affluent but they defiantly disobey therein; so the word comes into effect upon it, and We destroy it with complete destruction.

And how many have We destroyed from the generations after Noah. And sufficient is your Lord, concerning the sins of His servants, as Acquainted and Seeing.

As for him who desires the worldly pleasures, We swiftly provide in this world whatever We will to whomever We please. Then we assign to him Hell in which he shall burn despised and rejected. As for him who desires the hereafter, strives for it as he should, and is a true believer, it is such people whose efforts shall be appreciated by God.

End of Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

O People In this tale of a nation previous program and in part 36 of this dialogue I was telling you a summary of Muslims history after Hussein till today. Covering briefly Umayyads, Abbasids and Ottoman caliphate and then ended at Samanid, Seljuk, Ghurids and Ayyubis.

After all this started the period of Mamluks which referred to Muslim rulers of slave origin.  Over time, the Mamluks became a powerful military knightly class in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. Particularly in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Mesopotamia, and India, Mamluks held political and military power. The most prominent dynasties were.

Ghaznavids

Ghaznavids of Turkic origin that ruled in Iran, Afghanistan, and northern India from 977–1186AD. Founded by Sebuktigin after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire and declared independence from them. His son Memud is famous for his attacks on Delhi. The Persian poet Ferdowsi completed his epic Shah-nameh Book of Kings at the court of Mahmud about 1010AD. At the time of their decline, they first lost their northern territories and capital Ghazni to Seljuks and later to Ghurid’s with the capture of Lahore in 1186AD from the hands of Khusrau Malik the last of Ghaznavids which ended their rule.

Khwarazmis

Then is another Mamluk dynasty of Khwarazmis ruled in Central Asia and Iran, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and later as independent rulers from 1077 to1231AD. Founded by Anustegin a slave appointed as governor of Khwarezm by Seljuk Emporer Malik Shah. Anustegin descendants governed Khwarezm on behalf of the Seljuqs. Following Seljuk Sultan Sanjar’s death in 1157, Ala adin Tekin in 1194 killed the last Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Toghrul III and emerged victoriously. Later he Mongol army of Genghis Khan conquered Transoxania in 1220AD. The last Khwarezm-Shah, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu was defeated by the Mongols in 1231AD and his territories were taken over by them.

Mamluk Sultanate Of Cairo

Then is the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo from1250–1517AD. Founded in 1250 by Mamluks of the Ayyubid Sultan As-Salih Ayyub and succeeded the Ayyubid state. The Kurdish general Saladin, who gained control of Egypt in 1169, and then followed the same tradition of Muslim military practice and included a slave corps in his army in addition to Kurdish, Arab, Turkmen, and other free elements. His successors also followed this practice. Izz ad-Din Aybak was the first ruler who gained rule and established Bahri dynasty by marrying Shajar al-Durr, the wife of As-Salih Ayyub. She was the second Muslim woman after Razia Sultana of Delhi to become a monarch in Islamic history. She ruled only for three months  Among the most outstanding Mamluk sultans were Baybars I 1260–1277AD and al-Malik an-Nasir 1293–1341AD. The sultanate ended with the coming of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Historians divide the era of the Mamluk rule into two periods. From 1250–1382 AD as the Bahri period, and the other, 1382–1517 AD the Burji period. Because of the political control of the regiments known by these names during the respective times.

Mamluk Dynasty Of Delhi

Now I will throw some light on the Mamluk Dynasty of Delhi which lasted from 1206–1290AD. Founded by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia. Worked as administrator of Ghurid dynasty from 1192 to 1206 AD. After the assassination of Muhammad Ghor and because he has no children the empire split between his mamluk generals. Ghazni goes to Taj udin Yildoz, Multan to Nasir udin Qabacha, Bengal to Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji and Delhi to Qutb udin Aibak. There are a total of ten Sultans in Slave or Ghulam dynasty the most prominent were The first Sultan Qutb ud-Din Aibak, the 3rd Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, 5th a woman Razia Sultana, 9th Sultan was Ghiyath-ud-din Balban and  the last of the Slave dynasty rulers, 10th Sultan Muiz ud din Qaiqabad the grandson of Balban who was overthrown by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji.

Khaljis

And thus started the rule of Khaljis. As I just told Khilji dynasty was founded by Malik Feroz Khilji Known as Jalal Uddin Khalji in 1290AD and lasted till 1320AD. He was of Turkish Afghan origin. Dynasty named after a small village in Afghanistan. Khijis were vassals of Ghiyas udin Balbun in Mamluk sultanate of Delhi and later in a coup overthrew the 10th sultan Muiz din and became Sultan. He was 70 years old the time he took the throne and in 1296AD killed and overthrown by his nephew and son-in-law Ali Gurshasp known as Ala-ud-din Khilji who then rules till 1316 for 20 years. He successfully faces three Mongol attacks and then gained a decisive victory against the Mongols near the River Ravi and followed them till Afghanistan. He conquered and plundered many Hindu kingdoms like Gujrat Chittoor, Malwa, Siwana and Jalore. Chittor is the place of a somewhat fictional character of Rani Padmavati and Ratan Singh. Ala Uddin died of a disease and after his death, in chaos, his generals Malik Kafur and Khusraw khan appointed Ala udin son Shihabuddin as sultan but he was killed by his brother Mubarak shah with the help of commander of Punjab Ghazi Malik. But just after four years, Mubarak Shah himself was killed by his general Khusraw khan. The ministers again invited commander of Punjab Ghazi Malik who then came to Delhi captured and killed Khusraw Khan and himself became a Sultan with name Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq and thus is the start of Tughlaq dynasty.

Tughlaq Dynasty

Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320AD to 1413AD. The most prominent king was Muhammad bin Tughluq also known as Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan and Ulugh Khan. He ruled almost 26 years from 1325AD till 1351AD. He is the elder son of Ghazi Malik Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. In history there are records that he killed his father and brother by making a plan on the advice of a Muslim preacher Nizamuddin Auliya by making a wooden structure built without foundation and designed to collapse, making it appear as an accident. After his death in 1351 his cousin Firuz Shah Tughlaq reigned for almost 37 years till 1388AD.

After that there were nearly six short-lived rulers from Tughlaq dynasty and all chaos in the subcontinent with various invaders and new powers, emerging and vanishing. The disastrous invasion of Timur the Tamerlane was in 1398 AD when he was in control of a massive empire in the Middle East and Central Asia. Timur reached Delhi and, in mid-December, defeated the army of Sultan Mahmud Tughluq and sacked the city. Later new small rulers emerged like Sayyid dynasty by Khizr Khan Sayyid a governor of Taimur and the Lodi dynasty 1451-1526AD founded by Bahlul Lodi and then ruled by Sikander and Ibrahim Lodi the last of which lost Delhi to Mughals in the battle of Panipat in 1526AD.

The Mighty Mongol Empire

Before going to Mughals rule in sub-continent let me discuss here the Mighty Mongol Empire. Because it is this Mongol era which caused an irrecoverable loss to Muslims. But ultimately gave birth to the second phase of Islamic dominance in the region. And Mughal Emperors of sub-continent were actually descendants of Ganges Khan. The  Mighty Mongol Empire was founded in 1206AD by Temujin known as Ganges Khan.  In 1125AD China, The Jin Dynasty overthrew Liao dynasty also known as Khitan Empire as it was mostly comprised of Khitan people. Jin rulers known as golden kings followed the same policy of divide and rule as Liao Khitan empire did for Mongolian Zubu tribes. A common name of Mongol tribes among which most known were Khamag Mongols and Tatars. When Temujin great grandfather’s successor Ambaghai Khan betrayed by Tatars and they handed him over to Jin dynasty. Mongol attacked Tatars and get defeated by Jin and Tatar armies in 1161Ad. Then there were many tribal wars and in this vacuum and chaos in 1189 Temujin became the Khan of Khamag Mongols and later because of his policy of sharing all war spoils with his soldiers rather than only with elites and because of adapting people of the conquered territory in his tribe, he got great power and support. But simultaneously it also caused a rift and dissatisfaction within tribe and elders thus resulting in a war after which he defeated all rivals, unified all nomadic tribes and assumed the title of Genghis Khan the universal leader. He led campaigns in every direction overthrowing Jin in China, Tibet, qara Kitai and west to central Asia and Persia and Caucus thus founding the largest Land empire in the history. After his death in 1227AD, Ogedei his third son became emperor as he was already named by Ganges. After Ogedei death in 1241 AD the empire split due to dispute whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ogedei or from one of his other sons, such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. After ten years of chaos and bloodshed The Toluids prevailed and Touli son Mongke Khan become ruler and rules from 1251-1259AD. After Mogke death there was again a chaos and in 1260 Kublai Khan fourth son of Tolui became the 5th Khagan Emporer of Mongol empire. He also established the Yuan dynasty in China in 1271AD. He ruled as the first Yuan emperor till his death in 1294 AD.  By the time of Kublai Khan’s death, with no accepted Khan in existence,  the Mongol Empire was divided into four separate Khanates or empires.  The Golden Horde consisting of Russia, Ukraine, Black Sea region, the Caucasus. The Ilkhanate of Iraq and Persia. The Chagatai Khanate consisted of 5 Central Asian republics and the Yuan dynasty China. Out of these four empires or Khanates excluding the last one, all others converted to Islam.

Islamization Of The Mongol Empire

As I already told you that Mongols had caused much loss to the Islamic World. So much so that the word holocaust has sometimes been used to describe it. Under Mongke Khan rule he sent his brother Hulagu Khan to conquer Persia, Syria, Egypt and to destroy the Abbasid Caliphate and to establish the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran. In the 1258AD siege of Baghdad, He plundered looted and put on fire the rich Islamic culture of that time and pushed Islamic civilization in dark ages. But from the ashes of this destruction rise the eventual Islamisation of the entire Mongol Empire, outside of China and Mongolia. This is what I always say to you That God has its own way of doing things and if you do not change yourself, He will replace you by another people.

The shift towards Islam came after the death of Kublai Khan who was the grandson of Ghengis Khan and the last Great Khan. The first to convert was Berke Khan, Khan of the Golden Horde and son of Jochi Khan, the eldest son of Genghis Khan. He also persuaded his brother Tukh-Timur to convert to Islam as well. When Hulagu Khan looted Baghdad and overthrown Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustasim. Berke being a newly devoted Muslim decided to deal with Hulagu whose brother Mongke Berke helped make Great Khan in 1251. But soon after the sack of Baghdad in 1258 Mongke dies in 1259 and Hulagu had to return Mongolia to elect a new Great Khan. In his absence Mamluk of Egypt defeated the remaining Mongol army and when Hulagu came back in 1261 Berke allied with Mamluks and completely halt Mongol expansion in the middle east.

Despite Berke Khan conversion to Islam Berke Khan’s Golden Horde still hung to Original Mongolian religion and Buddhism, till Oz-Beg convert to Islam, took the throne in 1313, and adopted Islam as the state religion in 1315AD.

Now the second empire Chagatai Khanate, comprised of what are today’s

5 Central Asian republics had a ruler Mubarak Shah who converted to Islam in 1256AD same like Berke Khan. But the later rulers of empire converted back to original religion. Later when Tarmashirin Khan in 1331AD tried to take back the empire to Islam he was killed and the Khanate collapsed and later took over by Timur who converted all territories under his rule to Islam.

In the third empire, the Ilkkhanate of Iraq and Persia, Ghazan was the first ruler to convert to Islam in 1295AD. By the time of Ghazan, Islam had become popular in the Mongol dynasty. By AD 1330s three of the four major khanates had converted to Islam. The fourth one Yuan dynasty China – converted to Buddhism, not to Islam.

If my Lord Wills, I Will continue this in next Program.

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

So I swear by the Lord of all risings and settings that indeed We are surely able

To replace them with better than them; and We are not to be outrun.

So leave them to converse vainly and amuse themselves until they meet their Day which they are promised.

The Day they will come out from the graves rapidly as if they were hastening to a goal.

Their eyes humbled, humiliation will cover them. That is the Day which they had been promised.

The Birth of Pakistan, Iran and Saudi Arabia

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

Whoever God guides – he is the rightly guided; and whoever He sends astray – it is those who are the losers.

And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do not hear. Those are like livestock; rather, they are more astray. It is they who are the heedless.

And among those We created are people who guide by truth and thereby establish justice.

But those who deny Our signs – We will progressively lead them to destruction from where they do not know.

And I will give them time. Indeed, my plan is firm.

End of Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

O People in this tale of a nation previous program and in part 37 of this dialogue I was telling you a summary of Muslims history after Hussein till today and ended at Mongol Empire’s conversion to Islam.

Timurid Dynasty

Now let me tell you briefly about Mughals, Safavids and the Emirate of Diriyah and how these ended as the modern-day states of Pakistan, Iran and Saudi Arabia. But before Mughals let me tell you a little about Timurid dynasty, founded by the famous warlord Timur. Who was an official of Chughtai Khanate but he became so powerful that the rulers were just like puppets in his hands. This dynasty also known as Gurkani empire a derived word from the Mongolian language which means son-in-law. As they were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan founder of the Mongol Empire. Timur defeated and got possession of many states of Ikhannate and Golden Horde and in 1401-1402AD  he destroyed Baghdad and defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara. This made Timur the most powerful Muslim ruler of that time which also caused a civil war in Ottoman Empire. The same time he made Samarkand as his capital. Timurids were strongly influenced by Persian culture and ruled over a vast region that included almost the entire modern-day Turkey, the Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan), Syria, Iran, Iraq, Central Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan. This family established two empires, the Timurid Empire 1370–1507 based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire 1526–1857 based in the Indian subcontinent. In the 1500s the dynasty lost control over its territories. The western area of Iraq, Persia, Turkey and Caucasus fell to the Shiite Safavid dynasty founded by Shah Ismail I and Central Asia to Muhammad Shaybani after he conquered Herat and Samarkand and founded the Khanate of Bukhara. But the area from Kabul to India came in the hands of Babur a descendant of Timur who later founded the Mughal Empire in 1526AD.

Mughal Empire

So the Mughal Empire founded in 1526 and lasted till 1857AD except for a 15 years gap from 1540-1555AD in which it took over by Sur Dynasty founded by Sher Shah Suri. The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur who is a descendant from Turco-Mongol blood of Timur from his father side and Chughtai, the son of Gangez Khan from his mother side. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526AD. Only first two rulers Babur and Homayoun were pure Central Asian while others were mixed blood due to intermarriages with Persians and Rajputs. Empire extended all of the subcontinent and significant parts of Afghanistan. World’s largest economic power with 25% of World GDP and one of three Islamic Gunpowder empires others being Ottomans and Safavids. The empire saw its peak in the reign of Akbar 1556-1605AD and Jahangir 1605-1627AD. Later in 18th-century empire started losing control due to Marhata insurgencies resulted in the separation of independent states by Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh and the Nizam of Hyderabad. Then in 1739 Nader Shah of Iran the founder of the Afsharid dynasty defeated Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah in Battle of Karnal and Delhi was sacked and looted and in lieu of mercy to Muhammad Shah, he took the famous Peacock Throne served as a symbol of Persian imperial might. He also looted the Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds. After these incidents, the Mughal empire started shrinking in size and the last ruler, Bahadur Shah II, had control over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur Shah after defeat in 1857 war was tried by British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon. Thus is the beginning of Britsih Raj in India that started thru the East India company which was established in 1600AD for Trade. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire started declining in power. But after the end of Mughals in 1857AD British and its Allies faced many wars against Russia and Germany and after World War II Britain started losing controls over its colonies thus in 1947AD and after World War II a new Muslim country Pakistan born in this region of the subcontinent.

Safavid Empire

Now let’s turn towards the Safavid empire the Safavid dynasty, founded by Ismail I in 1501 and lasts till 1736AD. Safavid dynasty is one of three Islamic Gunpowder Empires and one of the greatest Iranian Empire after Sasanian Empire that has a native unified Iranian state. It is considered as the beginning of modern Iran history and the first to establish Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion. It originated from the Safaviyya Sufi order from Ardabil Azerbaijan. At its peak under the rule of Shah Abbas-I, it consisted of  Armenia, Azerbaijan, eastern Georgia, Iran, Bahrain, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. With their capital as Tabriz and Isfahan. Safavid Kings claimed to be Seyyeds i.e descendants of the prophet Muhammad. Safavid history begins with the Safaviyya by its founder Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334) who assumed the leadership of the Zahediyeh Sufi order in Gilan but the order was later known as the Safaviyya due to the great influence of Safi addin. It is the Safavid dynasty rule of Shah Tahmasp 1524–1576AD when Mughal emperor Homayoun threatened and overthrown by his half-brother took refuge in Iran. After that semi heartedly Homayoun converted to Shia Islam in return of that Tahmasp offered Military support and Homyoun went back. Another refugee was Ottoman prince Bayezid. In the last days of Suleman the magnificent, his favorite wife Hurrem Sultan wanted her son Salim to be the next ruler, but he was lazy and alcoholic while her other son Bayezid has superior capabilities. Bayezid because of quarrel with his father took refuge in Iran with Tahmasp. Due to continuous rivalry with Ottoman empire and the rise of Russian Muscovy Empire Safavids decline starts which was postponed for some time by Nader Shah, a military leader of a Vassal Afshar tribe. But later when Nadir Shah himself gained much power, he deposed Shah Tahmasp II then placed infant Abbas III as a puppet ruler and later in 1736AD crowned himself as Shah and thus founded the Afsharid dynasty which ruled for 1736 to 1796AD. After Nader’s death in 1747, Nadir’s assistant Ahmad Shah Abdali had declared his independence by founding the Durrani Empire. Then In 1796AD Mohammad Khan Qajar, took the kingdom and established the Qajar Dynasty the last ruler of which was Ahmad Shah Qajar who lost his power by the military coup of Reza Shah Pehlvi in 1921 with aide and advice of British commander in the region. Then in 1923AD Reza selected as Iran’s prime minister by the National assembly of Iran and later by constitutional amendment became legal Monarch of Iran in 1925 and founded Pehlvis Dynasty which lasted until 1979 when Khomeini disposed of his son Muhammad Reza Shah Pehlvi and the 2500 years old Iranian Monarch came to an end by Iranian Islamic revolution of Khomeini. And thus is the birth of the modern-day Islamic Republic of Iran.

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

So when they forgot that by which they had been reminded, We opened to them the doors of every [good] thing until, when they rejoiced in that which they were given, We seized them suddenly, and they were [then] in despair.

So the people that committed wrong were eliminated. And praise to God, Lord of the worlds.

Say, “Have you considered: if God should take away your hearing and your sight and set a seal upon your hearts, which deity other than God could bring them [back] to you?” Look how we diversify the verses; then they [still] turn away.

Say, “Have you considered: if the punishment of God should come to you unexpectedly or manifestly, will any be destroyed but the wrongdoing people?”

And We send not the messengers except as bringers of good tidings and warners. So whoever believes and reforms – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

But those who deny Our verses – the punishment will touch them for their defiant disobedience.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

O mankind, fear your Lord. Indeed, the quake of the final Hour is a terrible thing.

On the Day you see it every nursing mother will be distracted from that she was nursing, and every pregnant woman will abort her pregnancy, and you will see the people appearing intoxicated while they are not intoxicated; but the punishment of God is severe.

That is because God is the Truth and because He gives life to the dead and because He is over all things competent

O People in this tale of a nation previous program and in part 38 of this dialogue I was telling you a summary of Muslims history after Hussein till today and ended at Safavid and Qajar dynasties and the birth of modern-day Islamic Republic of Iran.

End of Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

Now let’s turn from Iran to Arabian Peninsula which consisted of four distinct regions Hejaz, Najd, parts of Eastern Area Al-Ahsa and Southern part Asir. From 10th to early 20th century the Muslim Holy sites were under control of Sharifs of Mecca. In Arabic Sharif means noble and was used for the descendants of Prophet Muhammad through his grandson Hassan. Throughout the reigns of Abbasids, Fatimids, Ayyubids, Mamluk and Ottoman they were given charge of holy sites for making sure the safety of Pilgrims. Sharifate came to an end when Hussein bin Ali with the support of Britain after Arab revolt of 1916 rebelled against Ottomans and later After British rise and Ottoman defeat in WW 1 he declared himself Caliph of all Arabs. British make new settlements states and granted Iraq and Transjordan to his son Faisal and Abdullah. Hussein also gives his caliphate to his sons Ali bin Hussein who was the last Grand Sherif who soon in 1925 overthrown and expelled by Ibn Saud and thus founded Saudi Arabia.

So the modern day Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Abdulaziz s/o Abdul Rahman s/o Faisal s/o Turki s/o Abdullah s/o Muhammad Al Saud. Known as Abdulaziz or Ibn Saud. But all started from Nejd in 1744AD when the great great grandfather of Abdulaziz, Muhammad bin Saud joined hands with Muhammad bin Abd al Wahhab, a religious leader of Sunni Islam and founder of the Wahabi movement. Who motivated people for Jihad and to join Al Saud’s army. Following the teachings of Ibn Taymiyyah, he believed only in fundamentals of the Quran, the Sunna, and the Hanbali school’s legal positions. And condemned practices such as veneration of the graves, holy figures and Imams as esp by Shias. Thus established the first Saudi state the Emirate of Diriyah in 1744AD to give a central place to this movement and to unify the many states of the Arab and free it from Ottoman rule. Muhammad bin Saud and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab additionally concrete the relationship by marrying their children. Muhammad bin Saud’s son Abdul-Aziz- with the daughter of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

After the death of Muhammad bin Saud in 1765AD and Muhammad bin Abd Al Wahhab death in 1792, Abdul Aziz Bin Muhammad who was the 2nd ruler of First Saudi estate marched against Ottomans and sacked Karbala. In 1802AD he attacked the city of Karbala with 12,000 Wahhabis from Najd some historian says at the anniversary of Ghadir Khum event, and some say on 10th of Muharram. The small Ottoman army escaped and they plundered the tomb of Hussein, killed almost 5000 people and returned back with large spoils, gold and coins. Some historian says that included the Nadir Shah treasure which he looted from Delhi. This attack gave extremism a somewhat intellectual credibility in the Sunni thoughts of some fractions. In 1803AD Abdulaziz’s son, Saud captured Mecca and Madina. After seeing this Ottoman empire decided to halt it and sent their viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha and in Ottoman-Saudi War of 1818 AD all were captured and the Ruler Abdullah bin Saud was sent to Ottoman capital Constantinople and executed. In1824 a very small second Saudi state was again established in Nejd. And for coming 60-70 years they kept fighting with another ruling family of Arabia AL Rashid who became victorious in 1891 and Al Saud were exiled to Qatar and Kuwait. In 1902AD Abdulaziz bin Abul Rahman was back in Nejd by capturing Riyadh with the help of Ikhwan a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al-Duwaish. Later a part of Ikhwan with some modifications became the Saudi Arabian National Guard SANG also known as The White. During World War I with the help of British agent, Captain William Shakespear Abdulaziz entered into the Treaty of Darin in 1915 which made the lands of the House of Saud a British protectorate and in return, Abdulaziz pledged to fight Al Rashid and Ottomans. Previously Britain was negotiating with Sharif Hussein bin Ali by T. E. Lawrence famous as Lawrence of Arabia. Later in 1927AD after Abdulaziz capture of Mecca, the treaty of Darin superseded by the Jeddah conference in which Ibn Saud got new extensions of Saudi Arabs boundaries as well as Weapons and a tribute of Sterling 5000 per month.

Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt of Sharif of Mecca kept himself focused on Al Rashids, defeated them and became the Sultan of Nejd in1921. And later in 1925 with the help of Ikhwan also captured Hejaz. Soon he faced challenges from Ikwan’s side as they want to promote their belief outside of Arab while Abdulaziz did not want any conflict with Britain so the Ikhwan turned against him and in 1929 in Battle of Sabilla Ikhwan were defeated and most of their leaders killed. In 1932AD Abdulaziz united two states of Hejaz and Nejd and founded the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Recitation of the Holy Scripture.

This is the Book in which there is no doubt, a guidance for those who have Fears: who believe in the unseen, and who establish Prayer, and spend out of what we have provided for them.

So have they not traveled through the earth and have hearts by which to reason and ears by which to hear? For indeed, it is not eyes that are blinded, but blinded are the hearts which are within the breasts.

And they urge you to hasten the punishment. But God will never fail in His promise. And indeed, a day with your Lord is like a thousand years of those which you count.

Will come soon!

Will come soon!

Will come soon!